Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute

EMDRIA approved training in EMDR therapy


Clinicians Guide to EMDR Therapy Research and Books

This section of the web site is devoted to organized lists of peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books on the scientific investigation EMDR therapy. There are full text links to many articles.

These lists are intended to comprehensive, and are updated twice a year. Last update: December 1, 2020. For the most complete listings of studies that may not indexed here, use the listed online database.

Please use the sectional links below or in the menu to find scholarly resources of interest.


Internationally recognized as an empirically supported treatment

EMDR therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that is internationally recognized as empirically supported treatment for acute and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. EMDR therapy is based on an Adaptive Information Processing model developed by Francine Shapiro, Ph.D.

Integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods and scientific research

EMDR therapy integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods including imaginal exposure, mindfulness, cognitive and self-control techniques into a structured treatment plan developed to meet the specific needs of each person.

In the reprocessing phases of EMDR therapy, patients pay attention to a specific memory or situation and focus on alternating, bilateral eye movements for 30 to 40 second periods. For patients who do not tolerate or respond to the bilateral eye movements, alternating tones or touch (such as hand taps) can be used.

Research on EMDR therapy’s means of action and hypotheses regarding effects of bilateral stimulation demonstrate that the sensory stimulation used in EMDR therapy has several distinct neurobiological effects that contribute to EMDR therapy’s treatment effects.

Eligibility for training in EMDR therapy

Only mental health professionals, who are licensed or eligible to be licensed to practice psychotherapy, are accepted for training by EMDR International Association approved training programs such as Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute.

For introductory information on EMDR therapy

Introductory information on EMDR therapy and links to reliable information on EMDR for a general audience are available on the “What is EMDR?” pages of the psychotherapy site for Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D., Director of Training for Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute. There you will also find links to resources for EMDR trained clinicians.


Treatment Guidelines Listing EMDR Therapy

US Guidelines

American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

American Psychological Association. (2017). Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults.

Guideline Development Panel for the Treatment of PTSD in Adults, A. P. A. (2019). Summary of the clinical practice guideline for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Am Psychol, 74(5), 596-607. doi:10.1037/amp0000473

American Psychological Association, Division 12, Society of Clinical Psychology. A Guide to Beneficial Psychotherapy. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Department of Veterans Affair & Department of Defense. The Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Work Group. (2017). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder [PDF]. Office of Quality and Performance publication. doi:10Q-CPG/PTSD-04 VA/DoD Treatment Guidelines: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Hamblen, J. L., Norman, S. B., Sonis, J. H., Phelps, A. J., Bisson, J. I., Nunes, V. D. et al. (2019). A guide to guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: an update. Psychotherapy, 56(3), 359.

Morgenthaler, T. I., Auerbach, S., Casey, K. R., Kristo, D., Maganti, R., Ramar, K. et al. (2018). Position Paper for the Treatment of Nightmare Disorder in Adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Paper. J Clin Sleep Med.

Therapy Advisor. (2004). Effective Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

International Guidelines

Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. (2007). Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Adults With Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Melbourne, Victoria: ACPMH.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (2007). Psychological Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Issue 4.

Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (2003). The Management of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults. Belfast: Northern Ireland Department of Health, Social Services, and Public Safety.

Dutch National Steering Committee for Mental Health Care. (2003). Multidisciplinary Guideline Anxiety Disorders. Utrecht, Netherlands: Quality Institute Health
Care CBO/Trimbos Institute.

Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., Cohen, J. A., & International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. (2009). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines From the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale. (2004). Psychotherapy: An Evaluation of Three Approaches. Paris, France: French National Institute of Health and Medical Research.

(2018). ISTSS PTSD Prevention and Treatment Guidelines Methodology and Recommendations.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2007). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Sjöblom, P.O., Andréewitch, S. Bejerot, S., Mörtberg, E., Brinck, U., Ruck, C., & Körlin, D. (2003) Regional Treatment Recommendation for Anxiety Disorders.
Stockholm, Sweden: Medical Program Committee/Stockholm City Council.

United Kingdom Department of Health. (2001). Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counseling: Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guideline. London, England.

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Assessment and Management of Conditions Specifically Related to Stress: mhGAP Intervention Guide Module (version 1.0). Geneva: WHO, 2013.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress. Geneva: WHO, 2013.


Meta-Analyses of EMDR Therapy

Bisson, J., Roberts, N.P., Andrew, M., Cooper, R. & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub4

Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry,162, 214–227.

Brown, R. C., Witt, A., Fegert, J. M., Keller, F., Rassenhofer, M., & Plener, P. L. (2017). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Psychol Med, 1-13.

Coventry, P. A., Meader, N., Melton, H., Temple, M., Dale, H., Wright, K., . . . Roberts, N. P. (2020). Psychological and pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: Systematic review and component network meta-analysis. PLoS medicine, 17(8), e1003262.

Cuijpers, P., Veen, S. C. V., Sijbrandij, M., Yoder, W., & Cristea, I. A. (2020). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for mental health problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 1-16. doi:10.1080/16506073.2019.1703801

Davidson, P.R., & Parker, K.C.H. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305–316.

Gerger, H., Munder, T., & Barth, J. (2014). Specific and nonspecific psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms: A meta-analysis with problem complexity as a moderator. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(7), 601-615. doi:10.1002/jclp.22059

Jeffries, F. W., & Davis, P. (2012). What is the role of eye movements in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A review
. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-11. doi:10.1017/S1352465812000793

John-Baptiste Bastien, R., Jongsma, H. E., Kabadayi, M., & Billings, J. (2020). The effectiveness of psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children, adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med, 50(10), 1598-1612. doi:10.1017/S0033291720002007

Karatzias, T., Murphy, P., Cloitre, M., Bisson, J., Roberts, N., Shevlin, M., . . . Hutton, P. (2019). Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 1-15. doi:10.1017/s0033291719000436

Kip, A., Priebe, S., Holling, H., & Morina, N. (2020). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in refugees. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Psychol Psychother. doi:10.1002/cpp.2446

Khan, A. M., Dar, S., Ahmed, R., Bachu, R., Adnan, M., & Kotapati, V. P. (2018). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Cureus.

Kitchiner, N. J., Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., & Bisson, J. I. (2019). Active duty and ex-serving military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder treated with psychological therapies: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1684226. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1684226

Kline, A. C., Cooper, A. A., Rytwinksi, N. K., & Feeny, N. C. (2018). Long-term efficacy of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Psychol Rev, 59, 30-40.

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2012). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Published online first. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.11.001

Lewey, J. H., Smith, C. L., Burcham, B., Saunders, N. L., Elfallal, D., & O’Toole, S. K. (2018). Comparing the Effectiveness of EMDR and TF-CBT for Children and Adolescents: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 11(4), 457-472. doi:10.1007/s40653-018-0212-1

Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., Andrew, M., Starling, E., & Bisson, J. I. (2020). Psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1729633. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1729633

Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., Gibson, S., & Bisson, J. I. (2020). Dropout from psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1709709. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1709709

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Stockton, S., Meiser-Stedman, R. et al. (2019). Psychological and psychosocial treatments for children and young people with post-traumatic stress disorder: a network meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Welton, N. J., Stockton, S., . . . Pilling, S. (2020). Psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: a network meta-analysis. Psychol Med, 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0033291720000070

Maxfield, L., & Hyer, L.A. (2002). The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 23–41.

Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Valiente-Gómez, A., Sio-Eroles, A., Pérez, V., Amann, B. L., & Radua, J. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in children and adolescent with post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychology, (1750). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01750

Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa, E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clin Psychol Rev, 30(6), 635-41

Roberts, N. P., Kitchiner, N. J., Kenardy, J., Lewis, C. E., & Bisson, J. I. (2019). Early psychological intervention following recent trauma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1695486. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1695486

Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C, Meijer, A.M., & Stams, G.J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta–analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599-606.

Schumacher, S., Niemeyer, H., Engel, S., Cwik, J. C., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2018). Psychotherapeutic treatment and HPA axis regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 98, 186-201.

Seidler, G.H., & Wagner, F.E. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1515-1522.

Sonis, J., & Cook, J. M. (2019). Medication versus trauma-focused psychotherapy for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res, 282, 112637. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112637

Stephen, L. A., Abdulkadir, H., & Karisse, C. (2017). Meta‐Analysis of Trauma‐Focused Therapies for Treating the Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(3), 339-353.

Tran, U. S., & Gregor, B. (2016). The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analytical evaluation of randomized controlled trials. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 266.

Turrini, G., Purgato, M., Acarturk, C., Anttila, M., Au, T., Ballette, F., . . . Barbui, C. (2019). Efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in asylum seekers and refugees: systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 1-13. doi:10.1017/S2045796019000027

van Etten, M., & Taylor, S. (1998). Comparative efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5, 126–144.

Yunitri, N., Kao, C.-C., Chu, H., Voss, J., Chiu, H.-L., Liu, D.,. . . Chou, K.-R. (2020). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing toward anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 123, 102-113. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.005

Reviews of EMDR Therapy

Adams, R., Ohlsen, S., & Wood, E. (2020). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for the treatment of psychosis: a systematic review. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1711349. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1711349

Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2009). Evidence of the efficacy of EMDR with children and adolescents in individual psychotherapy: A review of the research published in peer-reviewed journals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 232-247. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.232

Balbo, M., Zaccagino, M., Martina, C., & Civlotti, C. (2017). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eating disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 321-329.

Barron, I. G., Bourgaize, C., Lempertz, D., Swinden, C., & Darker-Smith, S. (2019). Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing for Children and Adolescents With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Narrative Review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 270-283. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.270

Bedeschi, L. (2018). EMDR for Bipolar Disorder: A systematic review of the existing literature. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 222-225.

Beer, R. (2018). Efficacy of EMDR Therapy for Children With PTSD: A Review of the Literature. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(4), 177-195. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.177

Bisson, J., & Andrew, M. (2007, 2009). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, Art. no. CD003388. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3.

Blankenship, D. M. (2017). Five Efficacious Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Empirical Review. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 39(4), 275-288.

Brewerton, T. D. (2018). An Overview of Trauma-Informed Care and Practice for Eating Disorders. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 1-18. doi:10.1080/10926771.2018.1532940

Brown, L. A., Belli, G. M., Asnaani, A., & Foa, E. B. (2019). A Review of the Role of Negative Cognitions About Oneself, Others, and the World in the Treatment of PTSD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43(1), 143-173. doi:10.1007/s10608-018-9938-1

Chen, R., Gillespie, A., Zhao, Y., Xi, Y., Ren, Y., & McLean, L. (2018). The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Children and Adults Who Have Experienced Complex Childhood Trauma: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Front Psychol, 9, 534.

Cloitre, M. (2009, January). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1, Supplement 1) 32-43.

Contractor, A. A., Weiss, N. H., Forkus, S. R., & Keegan, F. (2020). Positive Internal Experiences in PTSD Interventions: A Critical Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 152483802092578. doi:10.1177/1524838020925784

de Jongh, A., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., & Lee, C. W. (2019). The Status of EMDR Therapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 30 Years After Its Introduction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 261-269. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.261

de Jongh, A., Bicanic, I., Matthijssen, S., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., . . . Maxfield, L. (2019). The Current Status of EMDR Therapy Involving the Treatment of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 284-290. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.284

de Jongh, A., ten Broeke, E., Farrell, D., & Maxfield, L. (2020). Empirically Supported Psychological Treatments: EMDR Therapy. In J. G. Beck & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorders, Second Edition. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190088224.013.33

Dimitrov, L., Moschopoulou, E., & Korszun, A. (2019). Interventions for the Treatment of Cancer-Related Traumatic Stress Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Psycho-Oncology. doi:10.1002/pon.5055

Ehntholt, K. A., & Yule, W. (2006, December). Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47(12), 1197-1210.

Engelhard, I. M., McNally, R. J., & van Schie, K. (2019). Retrieving and Modifying Traumatic Memories: Recent Research Relevant to Three Controversies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 0963721418807728. doi:10.1177/0963721418807728

Faretta, E. (2018). EMDR in psychonocology. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 206-221.

Faretta, E., & Dal Farra, M. (2019). Efficacy of EMDR Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 325-332. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.325

Faretta, E., & Leeds, A. (2017). EMDR therapy of panic disorder and agoraphobia: A review of the existing literature. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 330-340.

Field, A., & Cottrell, D. (2011). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as a therapeutic intervention for traumatized children and adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence for family therapists. Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 374-388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6427.2011.00548.x

Fleming, J. (2012). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of traumatized children and youth. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 16-26. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.16

Furuta, M., Horsch, A., Ng, E. S. W., Bick, D., Spain, D., & Sin, J. (2018). Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Psychological Therapies for Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women Following Childbirth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Psychiatry, 9, 591.

Frappell-Cooke, W., & McCauley, M. (2018). Military psychological trauma and therapy: a review of EMDR treatment and supervision in the UK Ministry of Defence. J R Army Med Corps. doi:10.1136/jramc-2018-001060

Gillies, D., Taylor, F., Gray, C., O'Brien, L., & D'Abrew, N. (2013). Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents (review). Evidence-based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(3), 1004-116. doi:10.1002/ebch.1916

Grasser, L. R., & Javanbakht, A. (2019). Treatments of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Civilian Populations. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 21(2), 11. doi:10.1007/s11920-019-0994-3

Haerizadeh, M., Sumner, J. A., Birk, J. L., Gonzalez, C., Heyman-Kantor, R., Falzon, L., . . . Kronish, I. M. (2019). Interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms induced by medical events: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 109908. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.109908

Haugen, P. T., Evces, M., & Weiss, D. S. (2012). Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(5), 370-380. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.04.001

Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, Wilkins TM, Sonis J, Middleton JC, Feltner C, Meredith D, Cavanaugh J, Brownley KA, Olmsted KR, Greenblatt A, Weil A, Gaynes BN. (2013) Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 92. (Prepared by the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10056-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC011-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2013.

Klippel, C., & Sullivan, G. (2018). Older Adults as Caregivers for Veterans with PTSD. Generations, 42(3), 41-46.

Korn, D. L. (2009). EMDR and the treatment of complex PTSD: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 264-278. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.264.

Laufer, S., Engel, S., Knaevelsrud, C., & Schumacher, S. (2018). Cortisol and alpha-amylase assessment in psychotherapeutic intervention studies: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 235-262.

Leeds, A. M. (2009). Resources in EMDR and other trauma-focused psychotherapy: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 152-160. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.152.

Lenferink, L. I. M., Meyerbröker, K., & Boelen, P. A. (2020). PTSD treatment in times of COVID-19: A systematic review of the effects of online EMDR. Psychiatry research, 293, 113438.

Matthijssen, S. J. M. A., Lee, C. W., de Roos, C., Barron, I. G., Jarero, I., Shapiro, E., . . . de Jongh, A. (2020). The Current Status of EMDR Therapy, Specific Target Areas, and Goals for the Future. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 241-284. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00039

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Grey, N., Ghutani, G., Leach, J., Daly, C., . . . Pilling, S. (2020). Cost-effectiveness of psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0232245

Melton, H., Meader, N., Dale, H., Wright, K., Jones-Diette, J., Temple, M., . . . Coventry, P. (2020). Interventions for adults with a history of complex traumatic events: the INCiTE mixed-methods systematic review. Health Technol Assess, 24(43), 1-312. doi:10.3310/hta24430

Merz, J., Schwarzer, G., & Gerger, H. (2019). Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Pharmacological, Psychotherapeutic, and Combination Treatments in Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry.

Naseh, M., Macgowan, M. J., Wagner, E. F., Abtahi, Z., Potocky, M., & Stuart, P. H. (2019). Cultural adaptations in psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder among refugees: A systematic review. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 28(1), 76-97. doi:10.1080/15313204.2019.1570891

Nelson, & Stephanie, D. (2011). The posttraumatic growth path: An emerging model for prevention and treatment of trauma-related behavioral health conditions. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 21(1), 1. doi:10.1037/a0022908

Nowill, J. (2010). A critical review of the controversy surrounding eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing. Counselling Psychology Review, 25(1), 63-70.

Perkins, B. R., & Rouanzoin, C. C. (2002). A critical evaluation of current views regarding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Clarifying points of confusion. J Clin Psychol, 58(1), 77-97.

Perlini, C., Donisi, V., Rossetti, M. G., Moltrasio, C., Bellani, M., & Brambilla, P. (2020). The potential role of EMDR on trauma in affective disorders: A narrative review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 269, 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.001

Ponniah, K., & Hollon, S. D. (2009). Empirically supported psychological treatments for adult acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review. Depression and Anxiety, 26(12), 1086-1109. doi:10.1002/da.20635.

Rhoden, M.-A., Macgowan, M. J., & Huang, H. (2019). A Systematic Review of Psychological Trauma Interventions for Juvenile Offenders. Research on Social Work Practice, 104973151880657. doi:10.1177/1049731518806578

Schubert, S., & Lee, C. W. (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: A review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 117-132. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.117

Sciarrino, N. A., Warnecke, A. J., & Teng, E. J. (2020). A Systematic Review of Intensive Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. doi:10.1002/jts.22556

Stergiopoulos, E., Cimo, A., Cheng, C., Bonato, S., & Dewa, C. S. (2011). Interventions to improve work outcomes in work-related PTSD: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 838. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-838

Swan, S., Keen, N., Reynolds, N., & Onwumere, J. (2017). Psychological Interventions for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Psychosis: A Systematic Review of Outcomes. Front Psychol, 8, 341.

Tapia, G. (2019). Review of EMDR Interventions for Individuals With Substance Use Disorder With/Without Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 345-353. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.345

Tesarz, J., Wicking, M., Bernardy, K., & Seidler, G. H. (2019). EMDR Therapy’s Efficacy in the Treatment of Pain. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 337-344. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.337

Thompson, C. T., Vidgen, A., & Roberts, N. P. (2018). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review.

Torchalla, I., & Strehlau, V. (2017). The Evidence Base for Interventions Targeting Individuals With Work-Related PTSD: A Systematic Review and Recommendations. Behav Modif, 145445517725048.

Valiente-Gómez, A., Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Cedrón, C., Colom, F., Pérez, V. et al. (2017). EMDR beyond PTSD: A Systematic Literature Review. Front Psychol, 8, 1668.

van Rood, Y. R., & de Roos, C. (2009). EMDR in the treatment of medically unexplained symptoms: A systematic review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 248-263. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.248.

Verardp, A. R., & Cioccolanti, E. (2017). Traumatic experiences and EMDR in childhood and adolescence: A review of the scientific literature on efficacy studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 313-320.

Vickerman, K. A., & Margolin, G. (2009, July). Rape treatment outcome research: Empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(5), 431-448.

von der Warth, R., Dams, J., Grochtdreis, T., & König, H.-H. (2020). Economic evaluations and cost analyses in posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1753940. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1753940

Whitehouse, J. (2019). What do clients say about their experiences of EMDR in the research literature? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research papers. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2019.03.002

Wilson, G., Farrell, D., Barron, I., Hutchins, J., Whybrow, D., & Kiernan, M. D. (2018). The Use of Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-A Systematic Narrative Review. Front Psychol, 9, 923.


Randomized Controlled Studies

Abbasnejad, M., Mahani, K. N., & Zamyad, A. (2007). Efficacy of "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" in reducing anxiety and unpleasant feelings due to earthquake experience. Psychological Research, 9(3-4), 104-117.

Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Gulen, B. et al. (2016). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 46(12), 2583.

Ahmad A, Larsson B, & Sundelin-Wahlsten V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry, 61(5), 349-54.

Arnone, R., Orrico, A., D'aquino, G., & Di Munzio, W. (2012). [EMDR and psychopharmacological therapy in the treatment of the post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 0. doi:10.1708/1071.11732

Arabia, E., Manca, M. L., & Solomon, R. M. (2011). EMDR for survivors of life-threatening cardiac events: Results of a pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5, 2-13. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.1.2

Behnammoghadam, M., Kheramine, S., Zoladl, M., Cooper, R. Z., & Shahini, S. (2019). Effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on severity of stress in emergency medical technicians. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 12, 289-296.

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., van Es, S. M., Menninga, S., Meewisse, M. L., . . . Arntz, A. (2020). Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing as treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma: randomised clinical trial. Br J Psychiatry, 1-7. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.158

Brennstuhl, M. J., Tarquinio, C., Strub, L., Montel, S., Rydberg, J. A., & Kapoula, Z. (2013). Benefits of immediate EMDR vs. Eclectic therapy intervention for victims of physical violence and accidents at the workplace: A pilot study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 34(6), 425-34. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.759633

Capezzani, L., Ostacoli, L., Cavallo, M., Carletto, S., Fernandez, I., Solomon, R., . . . Cantelmi, T. (2013). EMDR and CBT for cancer patients: Comparative study of effects on PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 134-143. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.134

Chiorino, V., Cattaneo, M. C., Macchi, E. A., Salerno, R., Roveraro, S., Bertolucci, G. G., . . . Fernandez, I. (2019). The EMDR Recent Birth Trauma Protocol: a pilot randomised clinical trial after traumatic childbirth. Psychol Health, 1-16. doi:10.1080/08870446.2019.1699088

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J.G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related PTSD: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 99-112.

Cook-Vienot, R., & Taylor, R. J. (2012). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 62-72. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.62

Cvetek, R. (2008). EMDR treatment of distressful experiences that fail to meet the criteria for PTSD. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 2-14.

de Bont, P. A., van Minnen, A., & de Jongh, A. (2013). Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: A within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols. Behavior Therapy, 44(4), 717-730. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.07.002

Demirci, O., Sağaltıcı, E., Yıldırım, A., & Boysan, M. (2017). Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Duloxetine Treatment Outcomes in Women Patients with Somatic Symptom Disorder. Sleep and Hypnosis, 19(3), 70-77.

de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., van den Berg, D. P. G., de Roos, C., Lokkerbol, J., Smit, F., . . . van Minnen, A. (2019). Health–economic benefits of treating trauma in psychosis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1565032. doi:10.1080/20008198.2018.1565032

de Roos, C., Greenwald, R., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., Noorthoorn, E., van Buuren, S., & de Jongh, A. (2011). A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster exposed children. The European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2, 5694. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694

de Roos, C., van der Oord, S., Zijlstra, B., Lucassen, S., Perrin, S., Emmelkamp, P., & de Jongh, A. (2017). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12768

Diehle, J., Opmeer, B. C., Boer, F., Mannarino, A. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2014). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: What works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

Doering, S., Ohlmeier, M. -C., de Jongh, A., Hofmann, A., & Bisping, V. (2013). Efficacy of a trauma-focused treatment approach for dental phobia: A randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 1-10. doi:10.1111/eos.12090

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomized controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma‐focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. doi:10.1111/papt.12268

Edmond, T. E., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. G. (1999, June). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23(2), 103-116.

See also: Edmond, T., Sloan, L., & McCarty, D. (2004). Sexual abuse survivors’ perceptions of the effectiveness of EMDR and eclectic therapy: A mixed-methods study. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 259-272.

Eğeci, İ. S., & Özgün, S. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: EMDR Early Intervention With and Without Eye Movements for Learned Helplessness State. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 90-99. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.90

Faretta, E. (2012). [EMDR and cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 19-25. doi:10.1708/1071.11735

Faretta, E. (2013). EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 121-133. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.121

Farkas, L., Cyr, M., Lebeau, T. M., & Lemay, J. (2010). Effectiveness of MASTR/EMDR therapy for traumatized adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 3(2), 125-142.

Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Jahanfar, A., & Dehghan, A. (2019). The Effect of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on the severity of suicidal thoughts in patients with major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, Volume 15, 2459-2466. doi:10.2147/ndt.s210757

Gerhardt, A., Leisner, S., Hartmann, M., Janke, S., Seidler, G. H., Eich, W., & Tesarz, J. (2016). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. Treatment-as-Usual for non-specific chronic back pain patients with psychological trauma: A randomized controlled pilot study. Frontiers in Psychiatry / Frontiers Research Foundation, 7, 201. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00201

George, A., Thilly, N., Rydberg, J. A., Luz, R., & Spitz, E. (2013). Effectiveness of EMDR treatment in PTSD after childbirth: A randomized controlled trial protocol. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. doi:10.1111/aogs.12132

Ghanbari Nia, N., Afrasiabifar, A., & Behnammoghadam, M. (2018). Comparing the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with guided imagery on pain severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Pain Research, Volume 11, 2107-2113.

Gil-Jardiné, C., Evrard, G., Al Joboory, S., Tortes Saint Jammes, J., Masson, F., Ribéreau-Gayon, R. et al. (2018). Emergency room intervention to prevent post concussion-like symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder. A pilot randomized controlled study of a brief eye movement desensitization and reprocessing intervention versus reassurance or usual care. J Psychiatr Res, 103, 229-236.

Hafkemeijer, L., de Jongh, A., van der Palen, J., & Starrenburg, A. (2020). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in patients with a personality disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1838777. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1838777

Hase, M., Plagge, J., Hase, A., Braas, R., Ostacoli, L., Hofmann, A. et al. (2018). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Versus Treatment as Usual in the Treatment of Depression: A Randomized-Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 9, 1384.

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., et al. (2008). EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 2(3), 170-180.

Hogberg, G. et al., (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: A randomized controlled study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 54-61.

See also: Högberg, G. et al. (2008). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Outcome is stable in 35-month follow-up. Psychiatry Research. 159, 101-108.

Horst, F., Den Oudsten, B., Zijlstra, W., de Jongh, A., Lobbestael, J., & De Vries, J. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1409. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01409

Ironson, G.I., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 113-128.

Ironson, G., Hylton, E., Gonzalez, B., Small, B., Freund, B., Gerstein, M., . . . Bira, L. (2020). Effectiveness of three brief treatments for recent traumatic events in a low-SES community setting. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1-10. doi:10.1037/tra0000594

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim S., & Zand, S.O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368.

Jaberghaderi, N., Rezaei, M., Kolivand, M., & Shokoohi, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child Victims of Domestic Violence. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 14(1), 67-75.

Jahanfar, A., Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Dehghan, A., & Bashti, S. (2020). Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on the Quality of Life in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, Volume 13, 11-17. doi:10.2147/prbm.s232589

Jamshidi, F., Rajabi, S., & Dehghani, Y. (2020). How to heal their psychological wounds? Effectiveness of EMDR therapy on post‐traumatic stress symptoms, mind‐wandering and suicidal ideation in Iranian child abuse victims. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 1-10.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Application in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82-94. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.3.82

Jarero, I., Givaudan, M., & Osorio, A. (2018). Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 94-104.

Jarero, I., Schnaider, S., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 100-110. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.100

Jarero, I., Uribe, S., Artigas, L., & Givaudan, M. (2015). EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 166-173.

Karatzias, T., Brown, M., Taggart, L., Truesdale, M., Sirisena, C., Walley, R., . . . Paterson, D. (2019). A mixed-methods, randomized controlled feasibility trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) plus Standard Care (SC) versus SC alone for DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adults with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 1-13. doi:10.1111/jar.12570

Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25. doi:10.1177/1359104509339086

Lee, C. W., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002, September). Treatment of PTSD: Stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(9), 1071-1089

Lenferink, L. I. M., de Keijser, J., Smid, G. E., & Boelen, P. A. (2020). Cognitive therapy and EMDR for reducing psychopathology in bereaved people after the MH17 plane crash: Findings from a randomized controlled trial. Traumatology. doi:10.1037/trm0000253

Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hofmann, A. (2017). Evaluating the EMDR group traumatic episode protocol with refugees: A field study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 129-138. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129

Leiner, A. S., Kearns, M. C., Jackson, J. L., Astin, M. C., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Avoidant coping and treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. doi:10.1037/a0026814

Luyten, T. R., Jacquemin, L., Van Looveren, N., Declau, F., Fransen, E., Cardon, E., . . . Gilles, A. (2020). Bimodal Therapy for Chronic Subjective Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial of EMDR and TRT Versus CBT and TRT. Front Psychol, 11, 2048. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02048

Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (1997, Fall). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 34(3), 307-315.

See also: Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (2004, August). Three- and 6-Month Follow-Up of EMDR Treatment of PTSD in an HMO Setting. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(3), 195-208.

Markus, W., Hornsveld, H. K., Burk, W. J., de Weert-van Oene, G. H., Becker, E. S., & DeJong, C. A. J. (2019). Addiction-Focused Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy as an Adjunct to Regular Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. doi:10.1111/acer.14249

Marsden, Z., Lovell, K., Blore, D., Ali, S., & Delgadillo, J. (2017). A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.2120

McGuire Stanbury, T. M., Drummond, P. D., Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., & Lee, C. W. (2020). Comparative Efficiency of EMDR and Prolonged Exposure in Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 2-12. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.2.

Minelli, A., Zampieri, E., Sacco, C., Bazzanella, R., Mezzetti, N., Tessari, E., . . . Bortolomasi, M. (2019). Clinical efficacy of trauma-focused psychotherapies in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in-patients: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 273, 567-574. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2019.01.070

Molero, R. J., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Longitudinal Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-IGTP-OTS to Refugee Minors in Valencia, Spain. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(4), 77-88. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20190804.12

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15(4), 270-4. doi:10.3109/13651501.2011.590210

Nia, N. G., Afrasiabifar, A., Behnammoghadam, M., & Cooper, R. Z. (2019). The Effect of EMDR Versus Guided Imagery on Insomnia Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 2-9. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.2

Nijdam, M. J., Gersons, B. P., Reitsma, J. B., de Jongh, A., & Olff, M. (2012). Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 200, 224-31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.099234

Novo, P., Landin-Romero, R., Radua, J., Vicens, V., Fernandez, I., Garcia, F., . . . Amann, B. L. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 122-128. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.012

Ostacoli, L., Carletto, S., Cavallo, M., Baldomir-Gago, P., Di Lorenzo, G., Fernandez, I. et al. (2018). Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as Adjunctive Treatments for Recurrent Depression: The European Depression EMDR Network (EDEN) Randomized Controlled Trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 74).

Perez, M. C., Estevez, M. E., Becker, Y., Osorio, A., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2020). Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress Remote to Healthcare Professionals Working in Hospitals During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 15(4), 1-12.

Power, K., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D., Swanson, V., & Karatzias, A. (2002, August). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring, versus waiting list in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9(5), 299-318.

See also: Karatzias, A., Power, K. McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D. & Swanson, V. (2006). Predicting treatment outcome on three measures for post-traumatic stress disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neuroscience, 20, 1-7.

Rahimi, F., Rejeh, N., Bahrami, T., Heravi‐Karimooi, M., Tadrisi, S. D., Griffiths, P. et al. (2019). The effect of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing intervention on anxiety and depression among patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Raboni, M. R., Alonso, F. F., Tufik, S., & Suchecki, D. (2014). Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 209. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00209

Rostaminejad, A., Behnammoghadam, M., Rostaminejad, M., Behnammoghadam, Z., & Bashti, S. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. doi:10.1097/MRR.0000000000000227

Rothbaum, B. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005, December). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616.

Santarnecchi, E., Bossini, L., Vatti, G., Fagiolini, A., La Porta, P., Di Lorenzo, G., . . . Rossi, A. (2019). Psychological and Brain Connectivity Changes Following Trauma-Focused CBT and EMDR Treatment in Single-Episode PTSD Patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00129

Scheck, M., Schaeffer, J.A., & Gillette, C. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Shapiro, E., & Laub, B. (2015). Early EMDR Intervention Following a Community Critical Incident: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J EMDR Prac Res, 9(1), 17-27.

Shapiro, E., Laub, B., & Rosenblat, O. (2018). Early EMDR intervention following intense rocket attacks on a town: A randomised clinical trial. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 194-205.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.

Sheikhi, M., Moradi, M., Shahsavary, S., Alimoradi, Z., & Salimi, H. R. (2020). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the fear of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Psychol, 8(1), 82. doi:10.1186/s40359-020-00450-0

Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 6, 217-236.

Suárez, N. A., Pérez, J. M., Redolar-Ripoll, D., Hogg, B. M., Gardoki-Souto, I., Guerrero, F. G., . . . Moreno-Alcázar, A. (2020). EMDR versus treatment-as-usual in patients with chronic non-malignant pain: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 190-205. doi:10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00004

Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., Fedoroff, I., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003, April). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.

van Denderen, M., de Keijser, J., Stewart, R., & Boelen, P. A. (2018). Treating complicated grief and posttraumatic stress in homicidally bereaved individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(4), 497-508.

Van der Kolk, B., Spinazzola, J. Blaustein, M., Hopper, J. Hopper, E., Korn, D., & Simpson, W. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of EMDR, fluoxetine and pill placebo in the treatment of PTSD: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 37-46.

van der Vleugel, B. M., Libedinsky, I., de Bont, P. A. J. M., de Roos, C., van Minnen, A., de Jongh, A., . . . van den Berg, D. (2020). Changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate the effects of trauma-focused therapy on paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin Open. doi:10.1093/schizbullopen/sgaa036/33550606/sgaa036.pdf

Vaughan, K., Armstrong, M.F., Gold, R., O'Connor, N., Jenneke, W., & Tarrier, N. (1994). A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283-291.

Yurtsever, A., Konuk, E., Akyüz, T., Zat, Z., Tükel, F., Çetinkaya, M. et al. (2018). An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Intervention for Syrian Refugees With Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 9, 493.

Wanders, F., Serra, M., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR Versus CBT for Children With Self-Esteem and Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 180-189.

Wigley, I. L. C. M., De Tommasi, V., Bonichini, S., Fernandez, I., & Benini, F. (2019). EMDR and Nonpharmacological Techniques for Anxiety Prevention in Children Prior to Invasive Medical Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(3), 163-175. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.3.163

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937.

See also: Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

Zolghadr, N., Khoshnazar, A., MoradiBaglooei, M., & Alimoradi, Z. (2019). The Effect of EMDR on Childbirth Anxiety of Women With Previous Stillbirth. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 10-19. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.10

Combat Trauma

Butler, O., Willmund, G., Gleich, T., Gallinat, J., Kühn, S., & Zimmermann, P. (2018). Hippocampal gray matter increases following multimodal psychological treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Brain Behav, 8(5), e00956.

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Cook, J.M., Biyanova, T., & Coyne, J.C. (2009). Comparative case study of diffusion of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in two clinical settings: Empirically supported treatment status is not enough. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 518–524.

Hurley, E. C. (2018). Effective Treatment of Veterans With PTSD: Comparison Between Intensive Daily and Weekly EMDR Approaches. Front Psychol, 9, 1458.

Köhler, K., Eggert, P., Lorenz, S., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Zimmermann, P. et al. (2017). Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in German Armed Forces Soldiers With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Under Routine Inpatient Care Conditions. Mil Med, 182(5), e1672-e1680.

Russell, M. (2006). Treating combat-related stress disorders: A multiple case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with battlefield casualties from the Iraqi war. Military Psychology, 18(1), 1-18.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: A case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies. 7(2), 136-153.

Russell, M.C. (2008). War-related medically unexplained symptoms, prevalence, and treatment: utilizing EMDR within the armed services. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2(3), 212-226.

Russell, M.C. (2008). Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders. Social Science & Medicine, 67(11), 1737–1746.

Russell, M.C., & Silver, S.M. (2007). Training needs for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Traumatology. 13(3), 4-10.

Russell, M.C., Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Darnell, J. (2007). Responding to an identified need: A joint Department of Defense-Department of Veterans Affairs training program in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for clinicians providing trauma services. International Journal of Stress Management. 14(1), 61-71.

Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Russell, M.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 64(8), 947—957.

Wesson, M. & Gould, M. (2009). Intervening early with EMDR on military operations: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 3(2), 91-97.

Studies of Hypotheses Regarding Eye Movements

Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Baddeley, A. (1997). Eye-movements and visual imagery: A working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(2), 209-223.

Baek, J., Lee, S., Cho, T., Kim, S.-W., Kim, M., Yoon, Y., . . . Shin, H.-S. (2019). Neural circuits underlying a psychotherapeutic regimen for fear disorders. Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-0931-y

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce the vividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15(2), 325-345.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., MacCulloch, S., Freeman, T. C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye-movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42(Part 3), 289-302.

Christman, S. D., Garvey, K. J., Propper, R. E., & Phaneuf, K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221-229.

Cuperus, A. A., Laken, M., van Schie, K., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2019). Dual-tasking during recall of negative memories or during visual perception of images: Effects on vividness and emotionality. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 62, 112-116.

de Jongh, A., Ernst, R., Marques, L., & Hornsveld, H. (2013). The impact of eye movements and tones on disturbing memories involving PTSD and other mental disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(4), 477-483. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.002

Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working-memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913– 931.

Hornsveld, H. K., Houtveen, J. H., Vroomen, M., Aalbers, I. K. D., Aalbers, D., & van den Hout, M. A. (2011). Evaluating the effect of eye movements on positive memories such as those used in resource development and installation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 146-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.146

Hornsveld, H. K., Landwehr, F., Stein, W., Stomp, M., Smeets, S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Emotionality of loss-related memories is reduced after recall plus eye movements but not after recall plus music or recall only. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(3), 106-112.

Hout, M. A. V. D., Engelhard, I. M., Smeets, M. A. M., Hornsveld, H., Hoogeveen, E., de Heer, E., et al. (2010). Counting during recall: Taxing of working memory and reduced vividness and emotionality of negative memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 303-311.

Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., Bonnet, A., Bourtoire, P., & Sandretto, J. (2010). EMDR effects on pursuit eye movements. Plos ONE, 5(5), e10762.

Kavanagh, D. J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2008). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267-280.

Kuiken, D., Bears, M., Miall, D., & Smith, L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing facilitates attentional orienting. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 21, (1), 3-20.

Landin-Romero, R., Moreno-Alcazar, A., Pagani, M., & Amann, B. L. (2018). How Does Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Work? A Systematic Review on Suggested Mechanisms of Action. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved May 28, 2010 from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the processing of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 801-808.

Mathijssen, S. J. M. A., van Beerschotencd, L. M., de Jongh, A., Klugkist, I. G., & van den Houtab, M. A. (2018). Effects of “Visual Schema Displacement Therapy” (VSDT), an abbreviated EMDR protocol and a control condition on emotionality and vividness of aversive memories: Two critical analogue studies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W.T. & Hayman, C.A. G. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 247-261.

Mertens, G., Krypotos, A.-M., van Logtestijn, A., Landkroon, E., Veen, S. C. V., & Engelhard, I. M. (2018). Changing negative autobiographical memories in the lab: A comparison of three eye-movement tasks. Memory.

Novo Navarro, P., Maiche Marini, A., Scott, J., Landin-Romero, R., & Amann, B. L. (2013). No effects of eye movements on the encoding of the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop in healthy participants: Possible implications for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 983-988. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.08.005

Parker, A., Buckley, S. & Dagnall, N. (2009). Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements. Brain and Cognition, 69, 89-97.

Sharpley, C. F. Montgomery, I. M., & Scalzo, L. A. (1996). Comparative efficacy of EMDR and alternative procedures in reducing the vividness of mental images. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 25, 37-42.

Smeets, M. A., Dijs, M. W., Pervan, I., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2012). Time-course of eye movement-related decrease in vividness and emotionality of unpleasant autobiographical memories. Memory, 20(4), 346-57. doi:10.1080/09658211.2012.665462

Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121-130.

van den Hout, M. A., Rijkeboer, M. M., Engelhard, I. M., Klugkist, I., Hornsveld, H., Toffolo, M. J., & Cath, D. C. (2012). Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 275-279. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001


Psychophysiological and Neurobiological Evaluations

Amano, T., Seiyama, A., & Toichi, M. (2013). Brain activity measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during EMDR treatment of phantom limb pain. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 144-153. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.144

Bossini, L., Casolaro, I., Santarnecchi, E., Caterini, C., Koukouna, D., Fernandez, I., & Fagiolini, A. (2012). [Evaluation study of clinical and neurobiological efficacy of EMDR in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 12-5. doi:10.1708/1071.11733

Bossini, L., Fagiolini, A., & Castrogiovanni, P. (2007, November). Neuroanatomical changes after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 19(4), 475-476.

Bossini, L., Santarnecchi, E., Casolaro, I., Koukouna, D., Caterini, C., Cecchini, F., . . . Fagiolini, A. (2017). Morphovolumetric changes after EMDR treatment in drug-naïve PTSD patients. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 52(1), 24-31. doi:10.1708/2631.27051

Boukezzi, S., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Auzias, G., Reynaud, E., Rousseau, P. F., Richard, E., . . . Khalfa, S. (2017). Grey matter density changes of structures involved in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recovery following eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Psychiatry Research, 266, 146-152. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.06.009

Butler, O., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Gallinat, J., Kühn, S., & Zimmermann, P. (2020). Trauma, treatment and Tetris: video gaming increases hippocampal volume in male patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 45(3), 190027. doi:10.1503/jpn.190027

Camacho-Conde, J. A. (2020). Cognitive Function Assessment of a Patient with PTSD Before and After EMDR Treatment. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 216-228. doi:10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00022

Claudino, F. C. D. A., Gonçalves, L., Schuch, F. B., Martins, H. R. S., & Rocha, N. S. D. (2020). The Effects of Individual Psychotherapy in BDNF Levels of Patients With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1-9. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00445

de Voogd, L. D., Kanen, J. W., Neville, D. A., Roelofs, K., Fernández, G., & Hermans, E. J. (2018). Eye-movement intervention enhances extinction via amygdala deactivation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 0703-0718.

El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Beetz, E. M., & Khalfa, S. (2017). Restoration of emotional control ability in PTSD following symptom amelioration by EMDR therapy. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(1), 73-79.

Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Kelley, M. (2010). Cortisol response following exposure treatment for PTSD in rape victims. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma, 19(4), 349-356.

Giotakos, O. (2020). Neurobiology of emotional trauma. Psychiatriki, 31(2), 162-171.

Grbesa, G., Simonovic, M., & Jankovic, D. (2010). Electrophysiological changes during EMDR treatment in patients with combat-related PTSD. Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(Suppl 1), S209.

Khalfa, S. (2019). The management of psychological trauma through EMDR therapy and the cerebral mechanisms involved. Revue de neuropsychologie, 2(4). doi:10.1684/nrp.2019.0522

Kowal, J. A. (2005). QEEG analysis of treating PTSD and bulimia nervosa using EMDR. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(Part 4), 114-115.

Lamprecht, F., Kohnke, C., Lempa, W., Sack, M., Matzke, M., & Munte, T. (2004). Event-related potentials and EMDR treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 49 (2), 267-272.

Landin-Romero, R., Novo, P., Vicens, V., McKenna, P. J., Santed, A., Pomarol-Clotet, E., . . . Amann, B. L. (2013). EMDR therapy modulates the default mode network in a subsyndromal, traumatized bipolar patient. Neuropsychobiology, 67(3), 181-4. doi:10.1159/000346654

Lansing, K., Amen, D. G., Hanks, C., & Rudy, L. (2005, Fall). High-resolution brain SPECT imaging and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in police officers with PTSD. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17(4), 526-532.

Laufer, S., Engel, S., Knaevelsrud, C., & Schumacher, S. (2018). Cortisol and alpha-amylase assessment in psychotherapeutic intervention studies: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 235-262. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.023

Levin, P., Lazrove, S., & van der Kolk, B. A. (1999). What psychological testing and neuroimaging tell us about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(1-2), 159-172.

Oh, D.-H., & Choi, J. (2007). Changes in the regional cerebral perfusion after Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A SPECT study of two cases. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 24-30.

Otani, T., Matsuo, K., Kasai, K., Kato, T., & Kato, N. (2009, December). Hemodynamic responses of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 65(4), 375-383.

Pagani, M., Castelnuovo, G., Daverio, A., La Porta, P., Monaco, L., Ferrentino, F. et al. (2018). Metabolic and Electrophysiological Changes Associated to Clinical Improvement in Two Severely Traumatized Subjects Treated With EMDR-A Pilot Study. Front Psychol, 9, 475.

Pagani, M., Hogberg, G., Fernandez, I., & Siracusano, A. (2013). Correlates of EMDR therapy in functional and structural neuroimaging: A critical summary of recent findings. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 29-38. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.29

Pagani, M., Lorenzo, G. d., Verardo, A., Nicolais, G., Monaco, L., Niolu, C., . . . Siracusano, A. (2012). [Neurobiological correlates of EMDR therapy]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 16-8. doi:10.1708/1071.11734

Pagani, m., Di Lorenzo, G., Verardo, A. R., Nicolais, G., Lauretti, G., Russo, R., . . . Fernandez, I. (2012). Pre- intra- and post-treatment eeg imaging of EMDR - neurobiological bases of treatment efficacy. European Psychiatry, 27, Supplement 1(0), 1 -. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)75329-4

Pagani, M. et al. (2007). Effects of EMDR psychotherapy on 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in occupation-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 28(10), 757–765.

Park, S. C., Park, Y. C., Lee, M. S., & Chang, H. S. (2012). Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor level may contribute to the therapeutic response to eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing in complex post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 24(6), 384-386. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2011.00623.x

Parker, A., Powell, D., & Dagnall, N. (2018). Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory. Brain and Cognition, 121, 1-10.

Rapcencu, A. E., Gorter, R., Kennis, M., van Rooij, S. J. H., & Geuze, E. (2017). Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 82, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.04.010

Richardson, R., Williams, S.R., Hepenstall, S., Sgregory, L., McKie, & Corrigan, F. (2009). A single-case fMRI study EMDR treatment of a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(1), 10-23.

Rousseau, P. F., Boukezzi, S., Garcia, R., Chaminade, T., & Khalfa, S. (2020). Cracking the EMDR code: Recruitment of sensory, memory and emotional networks during bilateral alternating auditory stimulation. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 4867420913623. doi:10.1177/0004867420913623

Rousseau, P.-F., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Boukezzi, S., Cancel, A., Zendjidjian, X., . . . Khalfa, S. (2019). Fear extinction learning improvement in PTSD after EMDR therapy: an fMRI study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1568132. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1568132

Rousseau, P. F., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Zendjidjian, X., Samuelian, J. C., & Khalfa, S. (2019). Neurobiological correlates of EMDR therapy effect in PTSD. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(2), 103-111.

Rousseau, P. F., Malbos, E., Verger, A., Nicolas, F., Lançon, C., Khalfa, S. et al. (2019). Increase of precuneus metabolism correlates with reduction of PTSD symptoms after EMDR therapy in military veterans: an 18F-FDG PET study during virtual reality exposure to war. European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 1-5.

Sack, M., Lempa, W., & Lemprecht, W. (2007). Assessment of psychophysiological stress reactions during a traumatic reminder in patients treated with EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 15-23.

Sack, M., Nickel, L., Lempa, W., & Lamprecht, F. (2003) Psychophysiological regulation in patients suffering from PTSD: Changes after EMDR treatment. Journal of Psychotraumatology and Psychological Medicine, 1, 47 -57. (German).

Santarnecchi, E., Bossini, L., Vatti, G., Fagiolini, A., La Porta, P., Di Lorenzo, G., . . . Rossi, A. (2019). Psychological and Brain Connectivity Changes Following Trauma-Focused CBT and EMDR Treatment in Single-Episode PTSD Patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00129

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2010). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). J Anxiety Disord, [doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.024].

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2016). Eye Movements Matter, But Why? Psychophysiological Correlates of EMDR Therapy to Treat Trauma in Timor-Leste. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 70-81.

van der Kolk, B., Burbridge, J., & Suzuki, J. (1997). The psychobiology of traumatic memory: Clinical implications of neuroimaging studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 99-113.

Verger, A., Rousseau, P. F., Malbos, E., Chawki, M. B., Nicolas, F., Lançon, C., . . . Guedj, E. (2020). Involvement of the cerebellum in EMDR efficiency: a metabolic connectivity PET study in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1767986. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1767986

Vinkers, C. H., Geuze, E., van Rooij, S. J. H., Kennis, M., Schür, R. R., Nispeling, D. M., . . . Boks, M. P. (2019). Successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder reverses DNA methylation marks. Mol Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/s41380-019-0549-3

Yaggie, M., Stevens, L., Miller, S., Abbott, A., Woodruff, C., Getchis, M. et al. (2015). Electroencephalography Coherence, Memory Vividness, and Emotional Valence Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements During Unpleasant Memory Recall and Subsequent Free Association: Implications for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(2), 78-97.

Zantvoord, J. B., Zhutovsky, P., Ensink, J. B. M., Op den Kelder, R., van Wingen, G. A., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2020). Trauma-focused psychotherapy response in youth with posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with changes in insula volume. J Psychiatr Res. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.10.037


Evaluating Means of Action

Boukezzi, S., Silva, C., Nazarian, B., Rousseau, P. F., Guedj, E., Valenzuela-Moguillansky, C., & Khalfa, S. (2017). Bilateral alternating auditory stimulations facilitate fear extinction and retrieval. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 990. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00990

Brennstuhl, M.-J., Bassan, F., & Tarquinio, C. (2019). Analysis and comparison of speech of chronic pain patients during therapy as usual versus use of an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. [Analyse et comparaison de discours de patients douloureux chroniques durant une thérapie de soutien par opposition à l’utilisation de la thérapie Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).] Pratiques Psychologiques, 25(4), 441-451. doi:10.1016/j.prps.2018.06.003

Calancie, O. G., Khalid-Khan, S., Booij, L., & Munoz, D. P. (2018). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as a treatment for PTSD: current neurobiological theories and a new hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci.

Carletto, S., Borsato, T., & Pagani, M. (2017). The Role of Slow Wave Sleep in Memory Pathophysiology: Focus on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Front Psychol, 8, 2050.

Chamberlin, D. E. (2019). The Network Balance Model of Trauma and Resolution—Level I: Large-Scale Neural Networks. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 124-142. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.124

Cooper, R. Z., Smith, A. D., Lewis, D., Lee, C. W., & Leeds, A. M. (2019). Developing the Interrater Reliability of the Modified EMDR Fidelity Checklist. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 32-50. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.32

El Haj, M., Nandrino, J. L., Antoine, P., Boucart, M., & Lenoble, Q. (2017). Eye movement during retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories. Acta Psychologica, 174, 54-58. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.002

Elofsson, U.O.E., von Scheele, B., Theorell, T., & Sondergaard, H.P. (2008). Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 622-634.

Harricharan, S., McKinnon, M. C., Tursich, M., Densmore, M., Frewen, P., Théberge, J., . . . Lanius, R. A. (2019). Overlapping frontoparietal networks in response to oculomotion and traumatic autobiographical memory retrieval: implications for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1586265. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1586265

Lee, C.W., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P.D. (2006) The active ingredient in EMDR: Is it traditional exposure or dual focus of attention? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 97-107.

Leeds, A. M., & Korn, D. L. (2012). A commentary on Hornsveld et al. (2011): A valid test of resource development and installation? Absolutely not. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(4), 170-173. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.4.170

Leer, A., Engelhard, I. M., Lenaert, B., Struyf, D., Vervliet, B., & Hermans, D. (2017). Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance: An extended replication. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 94-105. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.002

Littel, M., van Schie, K., & van den Hout, M. A. (2017). Exploring expectation effects in EMDR: Does prior treatment knowledge affect the degrading effects of eye movements on memories? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup1), 1328954.

MacCulloch, M. J., & Feldman, P. (1996). Eye movement desensitization treatment utilizes the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: A theoretical analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(5), 571–579.

Mertens, G., Bouwman, V., Asmervik, J. F., & Engelhard, I. M. (2019). Changing emotional visual and auditory memories: are modality-matched dual-tasks more effective. Cogn Emot, 1-14. doi:10.1080/02699931.2019.1666800

Mertens, G., van Schie, K., Lammertink, S., Littel, M., & Engelhard, I. (2020). Verbal suggestions about treatment effectiveness do not modulate the effectiveness of a laboratory model of EMDR therapy: Results of two preregistered studies. doi:10.31234/osf.io/zhcpn

Moore, T., Phillips, J. S., Erskine, S. E., & Nunney, I. (2020). What Has EMDR Taught Us About the Psychological Characteristics of Tinnitus Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 229-240. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-19-00055

Nieuwenhuis, S., Elzinga, B. M., Ras, P. H., Berends, F., Duijs, P., Samara, Z., & Slagter, H. A. (2012). Bilateral saccadic eye movements and tactile stimulation, but not auditory stimulation, enhance memory retrieval. Brain and Cognition, 81(1), 52-56. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.10.003

Pagani, M., & Carletto, S. (2017). A hypothetical mechanism of action of EMDR: The role of slow wave sleep. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 301-305.

Pagani, M., Amann, B. L., Landin-Romero, R., & Carletto, S. (2017). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Slow Wave Sleep: A Putative Mechanism of Action. Front Psychol, 8, 1935.

Propper, R., Pierce, J.P., Geisler, M.W., Christman, S.D., & Bellorado, N. (2007). Effect of bilateral eye movements on frontal interhemispheric gamma EEG coherence: Implications for EMDR therapy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(9), 785-788.

Rogers, S., & Silver, S. M. (2002). Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 43-59.

Rousseau, P. F., Boukezzi, S., Garcia, R., Chaminade, T., & Khalfa, S. (2020). Cracking the EMDR code: Recruitment of sensory, memory and emotional networks during bilateral alternating auditory stimulation. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 4867420913623. doi:10.1177/0004867420913623

Servan-Schreiber, D., Schooler, J., Dew, M.A., Carter, C., & Bartone, P. (2006). EMDR for PTSD: A pilot blinded, randomized study of stimulation type. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 75(5), 290-297.

Stickgold, R. (2002). EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 61-75.

Stickgold, R. (2008). Sleep-dependent memory processing and EMDR action. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 289-299.

Suzuki A, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW, Masushige S, Silva AJ, Kida S. (2004). Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 4787– 4795.

Thomaes, K., Engelhard, I. M., Sijbrandij, M., Cath, D. C., & Heuvel, O. A. V. D. (2016). Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements: A pilot functional MRI study in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v%v.31371

van den Hout, M. A., Rijkeboer, M. M., Engelhard, I. M., Klugkist, I., Hornsveld, H., Toffolo, M. J., & Cath, D. C. (2012). Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 275-279. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001

Wilson, D., Silver, S. M., Covi, W., & Foster, S. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Effectiveness and autonomic correlates. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27(3), 219–229.

Wynn, J. S., Ryan, J. D., & Buchsbaum, B. R. (2020). Eye movements support behavioral pattern completion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 117(11), 6246-6254. doi:10.1073/pnas.1917586117


Emerging Applications

Annesley, P., Alabi, A., & Longdon, L. (2019). The EMDR DeTUR protocol for the treatment of self-injury in a patient with severe personality disorder: a case report. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 5(1), 27-38. doi:10.1108/JCRPP-11-2018-0034

Baas, M. A. M., van Pampus, M. G., Braam, L., Stramrood, C. A. I., & de Jongh, A. (2020). The effects of PTSD treatment during pregnancy: systematic review and case study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1762310. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1762310

Bae, H., & Kim, D. (2012). Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for an adolescent with internet addiction disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 73-81. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.73

Bae, H., Kim, D. & Park, Y.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation, 5(1), 60-65.

Balbo, M., Zaccagino, M., Martina, C., & Civlotti, C. (2017). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eating disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 321-329.

Barol, B. I., & Seubert, A. (2010). Stepping stones: EMDR treatment of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and challenging behavior. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4, 156-169.

Böhm, K., & Voderholzer, U. (2010). Use of EMDR in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders: A case series. Verhaltenstherapie, 20(3), 175-181.

Borji, M., Tarjoman, A., Abdi, A., & Otaghi, M. (2019). Efficacy of Implementing Home Care Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Reducing Stress of Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 20(7), 1967-1971. doi:10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.1967

Brand, R. M., McEnery, C., Rossell, S., Bendall, S., & Thomas, N. (2018). Do trauma-focussed psychological interventions have an effect on psychotic symptoms? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res, 195, 13-22.

Brennstuhl, M.-J., Bassan, F., Fayard, A.-M., Fisselbrand, M., Guth, A., Hassler, M., . . . Tarquinio, C. (2019). Immediate treatment following the November 13 attacks: Use of an EMDR emergency protocol. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(1), 17-21. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.09.004

Brown, S. H., Gilman, S. G., Goodman, E. G., Adler-Tapia, R., & Freng, S. (2015). Integrated Trauma Treatment in Drug Court: Combining EMDR Therapy and Seeking Safety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(3), 123-136.

Brown, S. & Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5(5), 403-420.

Brown, K. W., McGoldrick, T., & Buchanan, R. (1997). Body dysmorphic disorder: Seven cases treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(2), 203–207.

Carletto, S., Porcaro, C., Settanta, C., Vizzari, V., Stanizzo, M. R., Oliva, F. et al. (2019). Neurobiological features and response to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with breast cancer. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1600832.

Civilotti, C., Cussino, M., Callerame, C., Fernandez, I., & Zaccagnino, M. (2019). Changing the Adult State of Mind with respect to Attachment: an exploratory study of the role of EMDR psycho-therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(3), 176-186. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.3.176

Cope, S. R. (2020). EMDR as an Adjunctive Psychological Therapy for Patients With Functional Neurological Disorder: Illustrative Case Examples. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(2), 76-89. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00008

Cope, S. R., Mountford, L., Smith, J. G., & Agrawal, N. (2018). EMDR to Treat Functional Neurological Disorder: A Review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 118-132.

Corsetti, M. T., Rossi, E., Bonvino, S., & Randazzo, P. (2019). Psychological distress and quality of life are improved in autoimmune patients through Tandem-Psychotherapy, combining individual hypnosis and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for trauma, followed by supportive-expressive group therapy. Clinical Rheumatology, 1-9.

Cotter, P., Meysner, L., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Participant experiences of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing vs. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for grief: similarities and differences. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 8(1), 1375838.

Cowan, A., & Ashai, A. (2020). Psychotherapy with Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Assault. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(1-3), 22-26. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239557/

De Jongh, A., Groenland, G. N., Sanches, S., Bongaerts, H., Voorendonk, E. M., & Van Minnen, A. (2020). The impact of brief intensive trauma-focused treatment for PTSD on symptoms of borderline personality disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1721142. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1721142

Demirci, O., Sağaltıcı, E., Yıldırım, A., & Boysan, M. (2017). Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Duloxetine Treatment Outcomes in Women Patients with Somatic Symptom Disorder. Sleep and Hypnosis, 19(3), 70-77.

de Roos, C., Veenstra, A. C., de Jongh, A., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., van der Wee, N. J., Zitman, F. G., et al. (2010). Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Res Manag, 15(2), 65-71.

Faretta, E., & Borsato, T. (2016). EMDR Therapy Protocol for Oncological Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 162-175.

Faretta, E., Borsato, T., Civilotti, C., Fernandez, I., & Pagani, M. (2016). EMDR and CBT: A Comparative Clinical Study With Oncological Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 215-227.

Faretta, E., & Civilotti, C. (2016). EMDR Therapy in Psycho-Oncology: A Bridge Between Mind and Body. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 138-152.

Farrell, D., Kiernan, M. D., de Jongh, A., Miller, P. W., Bumke, P., Ahmad, S., . . . Mattheß, H. (2020). Treating implicit trauma: a quasi-experimental study comparing the EMDR Therapy Standard Protocol with a ‘Blind 2 Therapist’ version within a trauma capacity building project in Northern Iraq. Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 5(1). doi:10.1186/s41018-020-00070-8

Flik, C. E., & de Roos, C. (2010). [Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limb pain.]. Tijdschr Psychiatr, 52(8), 589-93.

Gauvreau, P. & Bouchard, S. (2008) Preliminary evidence for the efficacy of EMDR in treating generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 26- 40.

Gauvry, S. B., Lesta, P., Alonso, A. L., & Pallia, R. (2013). Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), Sudeck's dystrophy: EMDR reprocessing therapy applied to the psychotherapeutic strategy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 167-172. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.167

Gonzalez-Vazquez, A. I., Rodriguez-Lago, L., Seoane-Pillado, M. T., Fernández, I., García-Guerrero, F., & Santed-Germán, M. A. (2017). The Progressive Approach to EMDR Group Therapy for Complex Trauma and Dissociation: A Case-Control Study. Front Psychol, 8, 2377.

Gorgulu, S. A. (2020). Trichotillomania Treatment Based on Trauma: Case Report. Archives of Clinical and Medical Case Reports, 04(01). doi:10.26502/acmcr.96550181

Greenwald, R., Camden, A. A., Gamache, N., Lasser, K. A., Chapman, R., & Rattner, B. (2020). Intensive trauma-focused therapy with victims of crime. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 100146. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2020.100146

Guido, C. A., Zicari, A. M., Duse, M., & Spalice, A. (2019). Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment associated with parent management training (PMT) for the acute symptoms in a patient with PANDAS syndrome: a case report. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 45(1). doi:10.1186/s13052-019-0667-1

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., et al. (2008). EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 170-180.

Hogan, W. A. (2001, August). The comparative effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression. Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN. AAT 3004753.

Irish, A. J. (2020). Using Recent Traumatic Episode Protocol in College Counseling Centers. Journal of College Counseling, 23(2), 180-192. doi:10.1002/jocc.12158

Jacob, R., Li, T. Y., Martin, Z., Burren, A., Watson, P., Kant, R., . . . Wood, D. F. (2020). Taking care of our future doctors: a service evaluation of a medical student mental health service. BMC Med Educ, 20(1), 172. doi:10.1186/s12909-020-02075-8

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2010). The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: Application with adults during ongoing geopolitical crisis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 148-155.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & García, L. E. (2016). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Patients With Cancer. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 199-207.

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Brief report of an application in a human massacre situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 156-165. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.156

Kim D., Choi J., Kim S. H., Oh D. H. , Park S. C. , Lee, S. H. A Pilot Study of Brief Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Treatment of Acute Phase Schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2010;17(2):93-101.

Konuk, E., Epozdemir, H., Haciomeroglu Atceken, S., Aydin, Y. E., & Yurtsever, A. (2011). EMDR treatment of migraine. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 166-176. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.166

Korkmazlar, Ü., Bozkurt, B., & Tan Tunca, D. (2020). EMDR Group Protocol With Children: A Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 13-30. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.13

Laugharne, R. (2012). P-1265 - A role for EMDR (eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing) in the treatment of trauma in patients suffering from a psychosis. European Psychiatry, 27, Supplement 1(0). doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)75432-9

Lempertz, D., Wichmann, M., Enderle, E., Stellermann-Strehlow, K., Pawils, S., & Metzner, F. (2020). Pre-Post Study to Assess EMDR-Based Group Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Preschoolers. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 31-45. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.31.

Luteijn, I., VanDerNagel, J. E. L., van Duijvenbode, N., de Haan, H. A., Poelen, E. A. P., & Didden, R. (2020). Post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: A review of treatment studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 105, 103753. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103753

Luyten, T. R., Jacquemin, L., Van Looveren, N., Declau, F., Fransen, E., Cardon, E., . . . Gilles, A. (2020). Bimodal Therapy for Chronic Subjective Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial of EMDR and TRT Versus CBT and TRT. Front Psychol, 11, 2048. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02048

Manfield, P., Lovett, J., Engel, L., & Manfield, D. (2017). Use of the Flash Technique in EMDR Therapy: Four Case Examples. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(4), 195-205.

Marconi, M., & Polidoro, A. (2018). Some considerations about EMDR and psychosis. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 226-229.

Markus, W., de Kruijk, C., Hornsveld, H. K., de Weert–van Oene, G. H., Becker, E. S., & DeJong, C. A. J. (2019). Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder With Adjunctive Addiction-Focused EMDR: A Feasibility Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(3), 187. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.3.187

Markus, W., & Hornsveld, H. K. (2017). EMDR Interventions in Addiction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(1), 3-29.

Marr, J. (2012). EMDR treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Preliminary research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 2-15. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.2

Marsden, Z., Lovell, K., Blore, D., Ali, S., & Delgadillo, J. (2017). A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clin Psychol Psychother.

Matthijssen, S. J. M. A., Heitland, I., Verhoeven, L. C. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2019). Reducing the Emotionality of Auditory Hallucination Memories in Patients Suffering From Auditory Hallucinations. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00637

Mazzoni, G.-P., Pozza, A., La Mela, C., & Fernandez, I. (2017). CBT combined with EMDR for resistant refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 345-356.

McGoldrick, T., Begum, M. & Brown, K.W. (2008). EMDR and olfactory reference syndrome: A case series. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 63-68.

Meentken, M. G., van der Mheen, M., van Beynum, I. M., Aendekerk, E. W. C., Legerstee, J. S., van der Ende, J., . . . Utens, E. M. W. J. (2020). EMDR for children with medically related subthreshold PTSD: short-term effects on PTSD, blood-injection-injury phobia, depression and sleep. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 11(1), 1705598. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1705598

Mevissen, L., Lievegoed, R., & de Jongh, A. (2010). EMDR treatment in people with mild ID and PTSD: 4 cases. Psychiatr Q. [Epub ahead of print]

Meysami-Bonab, S., Abolghasemi, A., Sheikhian, M., Barahmand, U., & Rasooliazad, M. (2012). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy on the emotion regulation and emotion recognition of addicted individuals. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 14(10), 33-37.

Meysner, L., Cotter, P., & Lee, C. W. (2016). Evaluating the Efficacy of EMDR With Grieving Individuals: A Randomized Control Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(1), 1-11.

Mosquera, D. (2018). Treating personality disorders with EMDR therapy. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 187-193.

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15(4), 270-4. doi:10.3109/13651501.2011.590210

Qorbanpoor Lafmejani, A., Samady Biniaz, D., & Rezaei, S. (2020). The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Social Adjustment in Female Students with Social Phobia. International Journal of Psychology (IPA). doi:10.24200/IJPB.2020.170331.1086

Paauw, C., de Roos, C., Tummers, J., de Jongh, A., & Dingemans, A. (2019). Effectiveness of trauma-focused treatment for adolescents with major depressive disorder. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1682931. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1682931

Peregrinova, L., & Jordan, J. (2017). Psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorders among cardiac patients after implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks. Feasibility and implementation of a psychocardiological therapy manual in inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Heart and Mind, 1, 42.

Perilli, S., Giuliani, A., Pagani, M., Mazzoni, G. P., Maslovaric, G., Maccarrone, B., . . . Morales, D. (2019). EMDR Group Treatment of Children Refugees—A Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 143-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.143

Potik, D., Moghrabi, F., & Schreiber, S. (2020). Case Report: Pharmacotherapy and EMDR Psychotherapy as an Effective Treatment for OCD Imagery in a Patient with a Psychotic Disorder. Isr J Psychiatry, 57(1), 47-54.

Proudlock, S., & Peris, J. (2020). Using EMDR therapy with patients in an acute mental health crisis. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-019-2426-7

Raboni, M.R., Tufik, S., and Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing improves sleep quality, quality of life and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1071(1), 508-513.

Ribchester, T., Yule, W., & Duncan, A. (2010). EMDR for childhood PTSD after road traffic accidents: Attentional, memory, and attributional processes. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 138-147.

Ricci, R. J., Clayton, C. A., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Some effects of EMDR treatment with previously abused child molesters: Theoretical reviews and preliminary findings. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(4), 538-562.

Rikkert, M., van Rood, Y., de Roos, C., Ratter, J., & van den Hout, M. (2018). A trauma-focused approach for patients with tinnitus: the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing - a multicentre pilot trial. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 9(1), 1512248.

Rosas Uribe, M. E., López Ramírez, E. O., & Jarero Mena, I. (2010). Effect of the EMDR psychotherapeutic approach on emotional cognitive processing in patients with depression. Span J Psychol, 13(1), 396-405.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies, 7(2), 136-153.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain. Pain Medicine, 9(1), 76-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00299.x

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 31-45.

Schubbe, O. (2019). [Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders - Psychotherapy with Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing - Article in German]. Ther Umsch, 76(5), 247-251. doi:10.1024/0040-5930/a001092

Schwarz, J. E., Baber, D., Barter, A., & Dorfman, K. (2019). A Mixed Methods Evaluation of EMDR for Treating Female Survivors of Sexual and Domestic Violence. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 1-15.

Seubert, A. (2018). Becoming Known: A Relational Model Utilizing Gestalt and Ego State-Assisted EMDR in Treating Eating Disorders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(2), 71-86.

Shapiro, E., & Maxfield, L. (2019). The Efficacy of EMDR Early Interventions. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 291-301. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.291

Slotema, C. W., van den Berg, D. P. G., Driessen, A., Wilhelmus, B., & Franken, I. H. A. (2019). Feasibility of EMDR for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with personality disorders: a pilot study. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1614822.

Smyth-Dent, K. L., Fitzgerald, J., & Hagos, Y. (2019). A Field Study on the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress Provided to Adolescent Eritrean Refugees Living in Ethiopia. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 12(4), 1-12. doi:10.19080/PBSIJ.2019.12.555842

宋磊 王振英 [Song Lei & Wang Zhen-Ying]. (2007, November). 舍曲林联合EMDR治疗抑郁症对照研究 [Sertraline treatment of depression combined EMDR research: A control study of sertraline combined with the EMDR in the treatment of depression]. 临床心身疾病,134 [Journal of Clinical Psychosomatic Disease, 13(4)].

Tapia, G., Perez-Dandieu, B., Lenoir, H., Othily, E., Gray, M., & Delile, J.-M. (2018). Treating addiction with schema therapy and EMDR in women with co-occurring SUD and PTSD: A pilot study. Journal of Substance Use, 23(2), 199-205.

Tarquinio, C., Brennstuhl, M. J., Reichenbach, S., Rydberg, J. A., & Tarquinio, P. (2012). Early treatment of rape victims: Presentation of an emergency EMDR protocol. Sexologies. doi:10.1016/j.sexol.2011.11.012

Tarquinio, C., Brennstuhl, M. J., Rydberg, J. A., Bassan, F., Peter, L., Tarquinio, C. L., . . . Tarquinio, P. (2020). EMDR in Telemental Health Counseling for Healthcare Workers Caring for COVID-19 Patients: A Pilot Study. Issues Ment Health Nurs, 1-12. doi:10.1080/01612840.2020.1818014

Tehrani, N. (2019). Evaluation of a trauma therapy programme within emergency service organizations. Occup Med (Lond), 69(8-9), 559-565. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqz111

ten Hoor, N. M. (2013). Treating cognitive distortions with EMDR: A case study of a sex offender. The International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 12(2), 139-148. doi:10.1080/14999013.2013.791350

Torun, F. (2010). [Treatment of vaginismus with EMDR: A report of two cases.]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg, 21(3), 243-8.

Valiente-Gómez, A., Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Cedrón, C., Colom, F., Pérez, V., & Amann, B. L. (2017). EMDR beyond PTSD: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1668. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01668

van den Berg, D. P., & van der Gaag, M. (2012). Treating trauma in psychosis with EMDR: A pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 43(1), 664-671. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.011

Van Der Vleugel, B. M., Van Den Berg, D. P., & Staring, A. B. (2012). [Trauma, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder and the application of EMDR]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 33-8. doi:10.1708/1071.11737

van der Wielen, M., Robben, H., & Mark, R. E. (2019). The Applicability and Effect of EMDR in a Patient With a Mild Stage of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 51-60. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.51

van Minnen, M., Markus, W., & Blaauw, E. (2020). Addition-Focused EMDR Therapy in Gambling Disorder: A Multiple Baseline Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 46-59. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.46.

Wadaa, N. N., Zaharim, N. M., & Alqashan, H. F. (2010). The use of EMDR in treatment of traumatized Iraqi children. Digest of Middle East Studies, 19(1), 26-36.

Wilensky, M. (2006). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limb pain. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5(1), 31-44.

Wong, S.-L. (2019). Flash Technique Group Protocol for Highly Dissociative Clients in a Homeless Shelter: A Clinical Report. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 20-31. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.20

Wood, E., Ricketts, T., & Parry, G. (2017). EMDR as a treatment for long-term depression: A feasibility study. Psychology and Psychotherapy. doi:10.1111/papt.12145

Wright, L. C., & Warner, A. (2020). EMDR Treatment of Childhood Sexual Abuse for a Child Molester: Self-Reported Changes in Sexual Arousal. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(2), 90-103. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-19-00060

Zaccagnino, M., Cussino, M., Callerame, C., Civilotti, C., & Fernandez, I. (2017). Anorexia Nervosa and EMDR: A Clinical Case. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(1), 43-53.


Online EMDR Databases

The Francine Shapiro Library is the primary online database for scholarly articles and other reference materials related to the Adaptive Information Processing model and EMDR. The Francine Shapiro Library is hosted by the EMDR International Association and is maintained by Barbara J. Hensley, Ed.D.

The Trauma Information Pages includes a comprehensive listing of all published journal articles related to EMDR from 1989 through 2005 along with scholarly information on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for clinicians and researchers, general information and support resources for affected individuals and their families and a wealth of links to other resources.

EMDR Professional Associations

EMDR Europe provides links to EMDR associations in many European countries where you can find country directories of EMDR trained clinicians.


Getting Started with EMDR

Guidelines for clinicians in selecting clients for initial application of EMDR reprocessing during and immediately following basic training in EMDR by Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. Director of Training, Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute

Abstract
This article addresses questions raised by clinicians in training or recently trained in EMDR regarding case finding and selection criteria for their initial applications of EMDR. Guidelines are offered for number of sessions of practice during training, for identifying and deferring more complex cases until more experience is gained, and for recognizing clients where reprocessing of disturbing memories should be postponed in favor of client stabilization. Three classes of clients and targets, with descriptive case examples, are proposed for initial application of EMDR during the training process. Clinicians are encouraged to thoroughly read Shapiro’s (2001) required text and other recently published books and journal articles and to actively participate in consultation with an EMDRIA Approved Consultant.

2010 Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. updated 4/17/10 from privately distributed version 2/23/98
GettingStarted.pdf

The full text of the 14 page article "Getting Started with EMDR" by Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. is available here. Click the file "GettingStarted.PDF" above to view or right click to download.

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How to Find an EMDR Trained Clinician

The minimum standard for professional practice of EMDR therapy in the USA (and to become a full clinical member of the EMDR International Association) is completing an EMDRIA approved basic training in EMDR.

Some abbreviated workshops on EMDR therapy are offered by organizations not approved by EMDRIA. Some clinicians who offer EMDR therapy may have ceased their training after only attending part of an EMDRIA approved training program. Therefore you may want to ask if a prospective clinician has at least completed an EMDRIA approved training program. EMDR professional associations in most regions of the world have similar standards.

So, on the EMDRIA searchable directory, the first level of recognition is being a licensed mental health professionals who has completed an EMDRIA approved basic training in EMDR therapy. These clinicians are eligible for membership in EMDRIA and, as members, are listed in the online searchable directory.

The second level of professional recognition is Certification. EMDR therapy trained clinicians can earn the designation of EMDRIA Certification by demonstrating a commitment to continuing education in EMDR therapy and meeting standards of knowledge and skills through practice, study and consultation.

The third and highest level of professional recognition is to become an Approved Consultant.

You can locate EMDR trained clinicians in the USA (and in some other countries) at these different levels of recognition on the EMDRIA web site.

To select the level of professional recognition when searching, use options on the “Find A Therapist” page.