Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute

EMDRIA approved training in EMDR therapy

Clinicians Guide to EMDR Therapy Research and Books

This section of the web site is devoted to organized lists of peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books on the scientific investigation EMDR therapy. There are full text links to many articles.

These lists are intended to comprehensive, and are updated twice a year. For the most complete listings of studies that may not indexed here, use the listed online database.

Please use the sectional links below or in the menu to find scholarly resources of interest.


Internationally recognized as an empirically supported treatment

EMDR therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that is internationally recognized as empirically supported treatment for acute and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. EMDR therapy is based on an Adaptive Information Processing model developed by Francine Shapiro, Ph.D.

Integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods and scientific research

EMDR therapy integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods including imaginal exposure, mindfulness, cognitive and self-control techniques into a structured treatment plan developed to meet the specific needs of each person.

In the reprocessing phases of EMDR therapy, patients pay attention to a specific memory or situation and focus on alternating, bilateral eye movements for 30 to 40 second periods. For patients who do not tolerate or respond to the bilateral eye movements, alternating tones or touch (such as hand taps) can be used.

Research on EMDR therapy’s means of action and hypotheses regarding effects of bilateral stimulation demonstrate that the sensory stimulation used in EMDR therapy has several distinct neurobiological effects that contribute to EMDR therapy’s treatment effects.

Eligibility for training in EMDR therapy

Only mental health professionals, who are licensed or eligible to be licensed to practice psychotherapy, are accepted for training by EMDR International Association approved training programs such as Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute.

For introductory information on EMDR therapy

Introductory information on EMDR therapy and links to reliable information on EMDR for a general audience are available on the “What is EMDR?” pages of the psychotherapy site for Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D., Director of Training for Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute. There you will also find links to resources for EMDR trained clinicians.

Treatment Guidelines Listing EMDR Therapy

US Guidelines

American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

American Psychological Association, Division 12, Society of Clinical Psychology. A Guide to Beneficial Psychotherapy. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Department of Veterans Affair & Department of Defense. The Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Work Group. (2017). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder [PDF]. Office of Quality and Performance publication. doi:10Q-CPG/PTSD-04 VA/DoD Treatment Guidelines: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Therapy Advisor. (2004). Effective Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

International Guidelines

Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. (2007). Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Adults With Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Melbourne, Victoria: ACPMH.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (2007). Psychological Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Issue 4.

Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (2003). The Management of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults. Belfast: Northern Ireland Department of Health, Social Services, and Public Safety.

Dutch National Steering Committee for Mental Health Care. (2003). Multidisciplinary Guideline Anxiety Disorders. Utrecht, Netherlands: Quality Institute Health
Care CBO/Trimbos Institute.

Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., Cohen, J. A., & International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. (2009). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines From the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale. (2004). Psychotherapy: An Evaluation of Three Approaches. Paris, France: French National Institute of Health and Medical Research.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2007). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Sjöblom, P.O., Andréewitch, S. Bejerot, S., Mörtberg, E., Brinck, U., Ruck, C., & Körlin, D. (2003) Regional Treatment Recommendation for Anxiety Disorders.
Stockholm, Sweden: Medical Program Committee/Stockholm City Council.

United Kingdom Department of Health. (2001). Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counseling: Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guideline. London, England.

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Assessment and Management of Conditions Specifically Related to Stress: mhGAP Intervention Guide Module (version 1.0). Geneva: WHO, 2013.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress. Geneva: WHO, 2013.

Meta-Analyses of EMDR Therapy

Bisson, J., Roberts, N.P., Andrew, M., Cooper, R. & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub4

Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry,162, 214–227.

Davidson, P.R., & Parker, K.C.H. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305–316.

Jeffries, F. W., & Davis, P. (2012). What is the role of eye movements in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A review
. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-11. doi:10.1017/S1352465812000793

Gerger, H., Munder, T., & Barth, J. (2014). Specific and nonspecific psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms: A meta-analysis with problem complexity as a moderator. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(7), 601-615. doi:10.1002/jclp.22059

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2012). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Published online first. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.11.001

Maxfield, L., & Hyer, L.A. (2002). The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 23–41.

Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Valiente-Gómez, A., Sio-Eroles, A., Pérez, V., Amann, B. L., & Radua, J. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in children and adolescent with post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychology, (1750). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01750

Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa, E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clin Psychol Rev, 30(6), 635-41

Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C, Meijer, A.M., & Stams, G.J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta–analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599-606.

Seidler, G.H., & Wagner, F.E. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1515-1522.

van Etten, M., & Taylor, S. (1998). Comparative efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5, 126–144.

Reviews of EMDR Therapy

Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2009). Evidence of the efficacy of EMDR with children and adolescents in individual psychotherapy: A review of the research published in peer-reviewed journals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 232-247. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.232

Bisson, J., & Andrew, M. (2007, 2009). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, Art. no. CD003388. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3.

Cloitre, M. (2009, January). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1, Supplement 1) 32-43.

Ehntholt, K. A., & Yule, W. (2006, December). Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47(12), 1197-1210.

Field, A., & Cottrell, D. (2011). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as a therapeutic intervention for traumatized children and adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence for family therapists. Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 374-388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6427.2011.00548.x

Fleming, J. (2012). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of traumatized children and youth. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 16-26. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.16

Gillies, D., Taylor, F., Gray, C., O'Brien, L., & D'Abrew, N. (2013). Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents (review). Evidence-based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(3), 1004-116. doi:10.1002/ebch.1916

Haugen, P. T., Evces, M., & Weiss, D. S. (2012). Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(5), 370-380. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.04.001

Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, Wilkins TM, Sonis J, Middleton JC, Feltner C, Meredith D, Cavanaugh J, Brownley KA, Olmsted KR, Greenblatt A, Weil A, Gaynes BN. (2013) Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 92. (Prepared by the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10056-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC011-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2013.

Korn, D. L. (2009). EMDR and the treatment of complex PTSD: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 264-278. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.264.

Leeds, A. M. (2009). Resources in EMDR and other trauma-focused psychotherapy: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 152-160. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.152.

Nelson, & Stephanie, D. (2011). The posttraumatic growth path: An emerging model for prevention and treatment of trauma-related behavioral health conditions. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 21(1), 1. doi:10.1037/a0022908

Nowill, J. (2010). A critical review of the controversy surrounding eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing. Counselling Psychology Review, 25(1), 63-70.

Perkins, B. R., & Rouanzoin, C. C. (2002). A critical evaluation of current views regarding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Clarifying points of confusion. J Clin Psychol, 58(1), 77-97.

Ponniah, K., & Hollon, S. D. (2009). Empirically supported psychological treatments for adult acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review. Depression and Anxiety, 26(12), 1086-1109. doi:10.1002/da.20635.

Schubert, S., & Lee, C. W. (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: A review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 117-132. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.117

Stergiopoulos, E., Cimo, A., Cheng, C., Bonato, S., & Dewa, C. S. (2011). Interventions to improve work outcomes in work-related PTSD: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 838. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-838

van Rood, Y. R., & de Roos, C. (2009). EMDR in the treatment of medically unexplained symptoms: A systematic review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 248-263. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.248.

Vickerman, K. A., & Margolin, G. (2009, July). Rape treatment outcome research: Empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(5), 431-448.

Randomized Controlled Studies

Abbasnejad, M., Mahani, K. N., & Zamyad, A. (2007). Efficacy of "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" in reducing anxiety and unpleasant feelings due to earthquake experience. Psychological Research, 9(3-4), 104-117.

Ahmad A, Larsson B, & Sundelin-Wahlsten V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry, 61(5), 349-54.

Arnone, R., Orrico, A., D'aquino, G., & Di Munzio, W. (2012). [EMDR and psychopharmacological therapy in the treatment of the post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 0. doi:10.1708/1071.11732

Arabia, E., Manca, M. L., & Solomon, R. M. (2011). EMDR for survivors of life-threatening cardiac events: Results of a pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5, 2-13. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.1.2

Brennstuhl, M. J., Tarquinio, C., Strub, L., Montel, S., Rydberg, J. A., & Kapoula, Z. (2013). Benefits of immediate EMDR vs. Eclectic therapy intervention for victims of physical violence and accidents at the workplace: A pilot study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 34(6), 425-34. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.759633

Capezzani, L., Ostacoli, L., Cavallo, M., Carletto, S., Fernandez, I., Solomon, R., . . . Cantelmi, T. (2013). EMDR and CBT for cancer patients: Comparative study of effects on PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 134-143. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.134

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J.G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related PTSD: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 99-112.

Cook-Vienot, R., & Taylor, R. J. (2012). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 62-72. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.62

Cvetek, R. (2008). EMDR treatment of distressful experiences that fail to meet the criteria for PTSD. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 2-14.

de Bont, P. A., van Minnen, A., & de Jongh, A. (2013). Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: A within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols. Behavior Therapy, 44(4), 717-730. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.07.002

de Roos, C., Greenwald, R., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., Noorthoorn, E., van Buuren, S., & de Jongh, A. (2011). A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster exposed children. The European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2, 5694. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694

de Roos, C., van der Oord, S., Zijlstra, B., Lucassen, S., Perrin, S., Emmelkamp, P., & de Jongh, A. (2017). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12768

Diehle, J., Opmeer, B. C., Boer, F., Mannarino, A. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2014). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: What works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

Doering, S., Ohlmeier, M. -C., de Jongh, A., Hofmann, A., & Bisping, V. (2013). Efficacy of a trauma-focused treatment approach for dental phobia: A randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 1-10. doi:10.1111/eos.12090

Edmond, T. E., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. G. (1999, June). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23(2), 103-116.

See also: Edmond, T., Sloan, L., & McCarty, D. (2004). Sexual abuse survivors’ perceptions of the effectiveness of EMDR and eclectic therapy: A mixed-methods study. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 259-272.

Faretta, E. (2012). [EMDR and cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 19-25. doi:10.1708/1071.11735

Faretta, E. (2013). EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 121-133. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.121

Farkas, L., Cyr, M., Lebeau, T. M., & Lemay, J. (2010). Effectiveness of MASTR/EMDR therapy for traumatized adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 3(2), 125-142.

Gerhardt, A., Leisner, S., Hartmann, M., Janke, S., Seidler, G. H., Eich, W., & Tesarz, J. (2016). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. Treatment-as-Usual for non-specific chronic back pain patients with psychological trauma: A randomized controlled pilot study. Frontiers in Psychiatry / Frontiers Research Foundation, 7, 201. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00201

George, A., Thilly, N., Rydberg, J. A., Luz, R., & Spitz, E. (2013). Effectiveness of EMDR treatment in PTSD after childbirth: A randomized controlled trial protocol. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. doi:10.1111/aogs.12132

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., et al. (2008). EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 2(3), 170-180.

Hogberg, G. et al., (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: A randomized controlled study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 54-61.

See also: Högberg, G. et al. (2008). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Outcome is stable in 35-month follow-up. Psychiatry Research. 159, 101-108.

Horst, F., Den Oudsten, B., Zijlstra, W., de Jongh, A., Lobbestael, J., & De Vries, J. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1409. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01409

Ironson, G.I., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 113-128.

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim S., & Zand, S.O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Application in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82-94. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.3.82

Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25. doi:10.1177/1359104509339086

Lee, C. W., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002, September). Treatment of PTSD: Stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(9), 1071-1089

Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hofmann, A. (2017). Evaluating the EMDR group traumatic episode protocol with refugees: A field study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 129-138. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129

Leiner, A. S., Kearns, M. C., Jackson, J. L., Astin, M. C., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Avoidant coping and treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. doi:10.1037/a0026814

Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (1997, Fall). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 34(3), 307-315.

See also: Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (2004, August). Three- and 6-Month Follow-Up of EMDR Treatment of PTSD in an HMO Setting. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(3), 195-208.

Marsden, Z., Lovell, K., Blore, D., Ali, S., & Delgadillo, J. (2017). A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.2120

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15(4), 270-4. doi:10.3109/13651501.2011.590210

Nijdam, M. J., Gersons, B. P., Reitsma, J. B., de Jongh, A., & Olff, M. (2012). Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 200, 224-31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.099234

Novo, P., Landin-Romero, R., Radua, J., Vicens, V., Fernandez, I., Garcia, F., . . . Amann, B. L. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 122-128. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.012

Power, K., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D., Swanson, V., & Karatzias, A. (2002, August). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring, versus waiting list in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9(5), 299-318.

See also: Karatzias, A., Power, K. McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D. & Swanson, V. (2006). Predicting treatment outcome on three measures for post-traumatic stress disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neuroscience, 20, 1-7.

Raboni, M. R., Alonso, F. F., Tufik, S., & Suchecki, D. (2014). Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 209. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00209

Rostaminejad, A., Behnammoghadam, M., Rostaminejad, M., Behnammoghadam, Z., & Bashti, S. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. doi:10.1097/MRR.0000000000000227

Rothbaum, B. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005, December). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616.

Scheck, M., Schaeffer, J.A., & Gillette, C. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.

Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 6, 217-236.

Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., Fedoroff, I., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003, April). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.

Van der Kolk, B., Spinazzola, J. Blaustein, M., Hopper, J. Hopper, E., Korn, D., & Simpson, W. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of EMDR, fluoxetine and pill placebo in the treatment of PTSD: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 37-46.

Vaughan, K., Armstrong, M.F., Gold, R., O'Connor, N., Jenneke, W., & Tarrier, N. (1994). A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283-291.

Wanders, F., Serra, M., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR Versus CBT for Children With Self-Esteem and Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 180-189.

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937.

See also: Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

Combat Trauma

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Cook, J.M., Biyanova, T., & Coyne, J.C. (2009). Comparative case study of diffusion of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in two clinical settings: Empirically supported treatment status is not enough. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 518–524.

Russell, M. (2006). Treating combat-related stress disorders: A multiple case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with battlefield casualties from the Iraqi war. Military Psychology, 18(1), 1-18.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: A case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies. 7(2), 136-153.

Russell, M.C. (2008). War-related medically unexplained symptoms, prevalence, and treatment: utilizing EMDR within the armed services. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2(3), 212-226.

Russell, M.C. (2008). Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders. Social Science & Medicine, 67(11), 1737–1746.

Russell, M.C., & Silver, S.M. (2007). Training needs for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Traumatology. 13(3), 4-10.

Russell, M.C., Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Darnell, J. (2007). Responding to an identified need: A joint Department of Defense-Department of Veterans Affairs training program in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for clinicians providing trauma services. International Journal of Stress Management. 14(1), 61-71.

Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Russell, M.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 64(8), 947—957.

Wesson, M. & Gould, M. (2009). Intervening early with EMDR on military operations: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 3(2), 91-97.

Studies of Hypotheses Regarding Eye Movements

Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Baddeley, A. (1997). Eye-movements and visual imagery: A working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(2), 209-223.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce the vividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15(2), 325-345.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., MacCulloch, S., Freeman, T. C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye-movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42(Part 3), 289-302.

Christman, S. D., Garvey, K. J., Propper, R. E., & Phaneuf, K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221-229.

de Jongh, A., Ernst, R., Marques, L., & Hornsveld, H. (2013). The impact of eye movements and tones on disturbing memories involving PTSD and other mental disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(4), 477-483. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.002

Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working-memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913– 931.

Hornsveld, H. K., Houtveen, J. H., Vroomen, M., Aalbers, I. K. D., Aalbers, D., & van den Hout, M. A. (2011). Evaluating the effect of eye movements on positive memories such as those used in resource development and installation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 146-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.146

Hornsveld, H. K., Landwehr, F., Stein, W., Stomp, M., Smeets, S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Emotionality of loss-related memories is reduced after recall plus eye movements but not after recall plus music or recall only. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(3), 106-112.

Hout, M. A. V. D., Engelhard, I. M., Smeets, M. A. M., Hornsveld, H., Hoogeveen, E., de Heer, E., et al. (2010). Counting during recall: Taxing of working memory and reduced vividness and emotionality of negative memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 303-311.

Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., Bonnet, A., Bourtoire, P., & Sandretto, J. (2010). EMDR effects on pursuit eye movements. Plos ONE, 5(5), e10762.

Kavanagh, D. J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2008). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267-280.

Kuiken, D., Bears, M., Miall, D., & Smith, L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing facilitates attentional orienting. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 21, (1), 3-20.

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved May 28, 2010 from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the processing of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 801-808.

Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W.T. & Hayman, C.A. G. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 247-261.

Novo Navarro, P., Maiche Marini, A., Scott, J., Landin-Romero, R., & Amann, B. L. (2013). No effects of eye movements on the encoding of the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop in healthy participants: Possible implications for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 983-988. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.08.005

Parker, A., Buckley, S. & Dagnall, N. (2009). Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements. Brain and Cognition, 69, 89-97.

Sharpley, C. F. Montgomery, I. M., & Scalzo, L. A. (1996). Comparative efficacy of EMDR and alternative procedures in reducing the vividness of mental images. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 25, 37-42.

Smeets, M. A., Dijs, M. W., Pervan, I., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2012). Time-course of eye movement-related decrease in vividness and emotionality of unpleasant autobiographical memories. Memory, 20(4), 346-57. doi:10.1080/09658211.2012.665462

Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121-130.

van den Hout, M. A., Rijkeboer, M. M., Engelhard, I. M., Klugkist, I., Hornsveld, H., Toffolo, M. J., & Cath, D. C. (2012). Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 275-279. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001

Psychophysiological and Neurobiological Evaluations

Amano, T., Seiyama, A., & Toichi, M. (2013). Brain activity measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during EMDR treatment of phantom limb pain. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 144-153. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.144

Bossini, L., Casolaro, I., Santarnecchi, E., Caterini, C., Koukouna, D., Fernandez, I., & Fagiolini, A. (2012). [Evaluation study of clinical and neurobiological efficacy of EMDR in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 12-5. doi:10.1708/1071.11733

Bossini, L., Fagiolini, A., & Castrogiovanni, P. (2007, November). Neuroanatomical changes after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 19(4), 475-476.

Bossini, L., Santarnecchi, E., Casolaro, I., Koukouna, D., Caterini, C., Cecchini, F., . . . Fagiolini, A. (2017). Morphovolumetric changes after EMDR treatment in drug-naïve PTSD patients. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 52(1), 24-31. doi:10.1708/2631.27051

Boukezzi, S., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Auzias, G., Reynaud, E., Rousseau, P. F., Richard, E., . . . Khalfa, S. (2017). Grey matter density changes of structures involved in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recovery following eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Psychiatry Research, 266, 146-152. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.06.009

Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Kelley, M. (2010). Cortisol response following exposure treatment for PTSD in rape victims. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma, 19(4), 349-356.

Grbesa, G., Simonovic, M., & Jankovic, D. (2010). Electrophysiological changes during EMDR treatment in patients with combat-related PTSD. Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(Suppl 1), S209.

Kowal, J. A. (2005). QEEG analysis of treating PTSD and bulimia nervosa using EMDR. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(Part 4), 114-115.

Lamprecht, F., Kohnke, C., Lempa, W., Sack, M., Matzke, M., & Munte, T. (2004). Event-related potentials and EMDR treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 49 (2), 267-272.

Landin-Romero, R., Novo, P., Vicens, V., McKenna, P. J., Santed, A., Pomarol-Clotet, E., . . . Amann, B. L. (2013). EMDR therapy modulates the default mode network in a subsyndromal, traumatized bipolar patient. Neuropsychobiology, 67(3), 181-4. doi:10.1159/000346654

Lansing, K., Amen, D. G., Hanks, C., & Rudy, L. (2005, Fall). High-resolution brain SPECT imaging and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in police officers with PTSD. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17(4), 526-532.

Levin, P., Lazrove, S., & van der Kolk, B. A. (1999). What psychological testing and neuroimaging tell us about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(1-2), 159-172.

Oh, D.-H., & Choi, J. (2007). Changes in the regional cerebral perfusion after Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A SPECT study of two cases. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 24-30.

Otani, T., Matsuo, K., Kasai, K., Kato, T., & Kato, N. (2009, December). Hemodynamic responses of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 65(4), 375-383.

Pagani, M., Hogberg, G., Fernandez, I., & Siracusano, A. (2013). Correlates of EMDR therapy in functional and structural neuroimaging: A critical summary of recent findings. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 29-38. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.29

Pagani, M., Lorenzo, G. d., Verardo, A., Nicolais, G., Monaco, L., Niolu, C., . . . Siracusano, A. (2012). [Neurobiological correlates of EMDR therapy]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 16-8. doi:10.1708/1071.11734

Pagani, m., Di Lorenzo, G., Verardo, A. R., Nicolais, G., Lauretti, G., Russo, R., . . . Fernandez, I. (2012). Pre- intra- and post-treatment eeg imaging of EMDR - neurobiological bases of treatment efficacy. European Psychiatry, 27, Supplement 1(0), 1 -. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)75329-4

Pagani, M. et al. (2007). Effects of EMDR psychotherapy on 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in occupation-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 28(10), 757–765.

Park, S. C., Park, Y. C., Lee, M. S., & Chang, H. S. (2012). Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor level may contribute to the therapeutic response to eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing in complex post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 24(6), 384-386. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2011.00623.x

Richardson, R., Williams, S.R., Hepenstall, S., Sgregory, L., McKie, & Corrigan, F. (2009). A single-case fMRI study EMDR treatment of a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(1), 10-23.

Sack, M., Lempa, W., & Lemprecht, W. (2007). Assessment of psychophysiological stress reactions during a traumatic reminder in patients treated with EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 15-23.

Sack, M., Nickel, L., Lempa, W., & Lamprecht, F. (2003) Psychophysiological regulation in patients suffering from PTSD: Changes after EMDR treatment. Journal of Psychotraumatology and Psychological Medicine, 1, 47 -57. (German).

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2010). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR).J Anxiety Disord, [doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.024].

van der Kolk, B., Burbridge, J., & Suzuki, J. (1997). The psychobiology of traumatic memory: Clinical implications of neuroimaging studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 99-113.

Evaluating Means of Action

Boukezzi, S., Silva, C., Nazarian, B., Rousseau, P. F., Guedj, E., Valenzuela-Moguillansky, C., & Khalfa, S. (2017). Bilateral alternating auditory stimulations facilitate fear extinction and retrieval. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 990. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00990

El Haj, M., Nandrino, J. L., Antoine, P., Boucart, M., & Lenoble, Q. (2017). Eye movement during retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories. Acta Psychologica, 174, 54-58. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.002

Elofsson, U.O.E., von Scheele, B., Theorell, T., & Sondergaard, H.P. (2008). Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 622-634.

Lee, C.W., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P.D. (2006) The active ingredient in EMDR: Is it traditional exposure or dual focus of attention? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 97-107.

Leeds, A. M., & Korn, D. L. (2012). A commentary on Hornsveld et al. (2011): A valid test of resource development and installation? Absolutely not. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(4), 170-173. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.4.170

Leer, A., Engelhard, I. M., Lenaert, B., Struyf, D., Vervliet, B., & Hermans, D. (2017). Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance: An extended replication. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 94-105. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.002

Littel, M., van Schie, K., & van den Hout, M. A. (2017). Exploring expectation effects in EMDR: Does prior treatment knowledge affect the degrading effects of eye movements on memories? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup1), 1328954.

MacCulloch, M. J., & Feldman, P. (1996). Eye movement desensitization treatment utilizes the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: A theoretical analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(5), 571–579.

Nieuwenhuis, S., Elzinga, B. M., Ras, P. H., Berends, F., Duijs, P., Samara, Z., & Slagter, H. A. (2012). Bilateral saccadic eye movements and tactile stimulation, but not auditory stimulation, enhance memory retrieval. Brain and Cognition, 81(1), 52-56. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.10.003

Propper, R., Pierce, J.P., Geisler, M.W., Christman, S.D., & Bellorado, N. (2007). Effect of bilateral eye movements on frontal interhemispheric gamma EEG coherence: Implications for EMDR therapy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(9), 785-788.

Rogers, S., & Silver, S. M. (2002). Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 43-59.

Servan-Schreiber, D., Schooler, J., Dew, M.A., Carter, C., & Bartone, P. (2006). EMDR for PTSD: A pilot blinded, randomized study of stimulation type. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 75(5), 290-297.

Stickgold, R. (2002). EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 61-75.

Stickgold, R. (2008). Sleep-dependent memory processing and EMDR action. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 289-299.

Suzuki A, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW, Masushige S, Silva AJ, Kida S. (2004). Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 4787– 4795.

Thomaes, K., Engelhard, I. M., Sijbrandij, M., Cath, D. C., & Heuvel, O. A. V. D. (2016). Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements: A pilot functional MRI study in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v%v.31371

van den Hout, M. A., Rijkeboer, M. M., Engelhard, I. M., Klugkist, I., Hornsveld, H., Toffolo, M. J., & Cath, D. C. (2012). Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 275-279. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001

Wilson, D., Silver, S. M., Covi, W., & Foster, S. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Effectiveness and autonomic correlates. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27(3), 219–229.

Emerging Applications

Bae, H., & Kim, D. (2012). Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for an adolescent with internet addiction disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 73-81. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.73

Bae, H., Kim, D. & Park, Y.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation, 5(1), 60-65.

Barol, B. I., & Seubert, A. (2010). Stepping stones: EMDR treatment of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and challenging behavior. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4, 156-169.

Böhm, K., & Voderholzer, U. (2010). Use of EMDR in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders: A case series. Verhaltenstherapie, 20(3), 175-181.

Brown, S. & Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5(5), 403-420.

Brown, K. W., McGoldrick, T., & Buchanan, R. (1997). Body dysmorphic disorder: Seven cases treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(2), 203–207.

de Roos, C., Veenstra, A. C., de Jongh, A., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., van der Wee, N. J., Zitman, F. G., et al. (2010). Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Res Manag, 15(2), 65-71.

Flik, C. E., & de Roos, C. (2010). [Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limb pain.]. Tijdschr Psychiatr, 52(8), 589-93.

Gauvreau, P. & Bouchard, S. (2008) Preliminary evidence for the efficacy of EMDR in treating generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 26- 40.

Gauvry, S. B., Lesta, P., Alonso, A. L., & Pallia, R. (2013). Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), Sudeck's dystrophy: EMDR reprocessing therapy applied to the psychotherapeutic strategy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 167-172. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.167

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., et al. (2008). EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 170-180.

Hogan, W. A. (2001, August). The comparative effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression. Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN. AAT 3004753.

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2010). The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: Application with adults during ongoing geopolitical crisis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 148-155.

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Brief report of an application in a human massacre situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 156-165. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.156

Kim D., Choi J., Kim S. H., Oh D. H. , Park S. C. , Lee, S. H. A Pilot Study of Brief Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Treatment of Acute Phase Schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2010;17(2):93-101.

Konuk, E., Epozdemir, H., Haciomeroglu Atceken, S., Aydin, Y. E., & Yurtsever, A. (2011). EMDR treatment of migraine. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 166-176. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.166

Laugharne, R. (2012). P-1265 - A role for EMDR (eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing) in the treatment of trauma in patients suffering from a psychosis. European Psychiatry, 27, Supplement 1(0). doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)75432-9

Marr, J. (2012). EMDR treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Preliminary research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 2-15. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.2

McGoldrick, T., Begum, M. & Brown, K.W. (2008). EMDR and olfactory reference syndrome: A case series. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 63-68.

Mevissen, L., Lievegoed, R., & de Jongh, A. (2010). EMDR treatment in people with mild ID and PTSD: 4 cases. Psychiatr Q. [Epub ahead of print]

Meysami-Bonab, S., Abolghasemi, A., Sheikhian, M., Barahmand, U., & Rasooliazad, M. (2012). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy on the emotion regulation and emotion recognition of addicted individuals. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 14(10), 33-37.

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15(4), 270-4. doi:10.3109/13651501.2011.590210

Raboni, M.R., Tufik, S., and Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing improves sleep quality, quality of life and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1071(1), 508-513.

Ribchester, T., Yule, W., & Duncan, A. (2010). EMDR for childhood PTSD after road traffic accidents: Attentional, memory, and attributional processes. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 138-147.

Ricci, R. J., Clayton, C. A., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Some effects of EMDR treatment with previously abused child molesters: Theoretical reviews and preliminary findings. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(4), 538-562.

Rosas Uribe, M. E., López Ramírez, E. O., & Jarero Mena, I. (2010). Effect of the EMDR psychotherapeutic approach on emotional cognitive processing in patients with depression. Span J Psychol, 13(1), 396-405.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies, 7(2), 136-153.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain. Pain Medicine, 9(1), 76-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00299.x

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 31-45.

宋磊 王振英 [Song Lei & Wang Zhen-Ying]. (2007, November). 舍曲林联合EMDR治疗抑郁症对照研究 [Sertraline treatment of depression combined EMDR research: A control study of sertraline combined with the EMDR in the treatment of depression]. 临床心身疾病,134 [Journal of Clinical Psychosomatic Disease, 13(4)].

Tarquinio, C., Brennstuhl, M. J., Reichenbach, S., Rydberg, J. A., & Tarquinio, P. (2012). Early treatment of rape victims: Presentation of an emergency EMDR protocol. Sexologies. doi:10.1016/j.sexol.2011.11.012

ten Hoor, N. M. (2013). Treating cognitive distortions with EMDR: A case study of a sex offender. The International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 12(2), 139-148. doi:10.1080/14999013.2013.791350

Torun, F. (2010). [Treatment of vaginismus with EMDR: A report of two cases.]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg, 21(3), 243-8.

Valiente-Gómez, A., Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Cedrón, C., Colom, F., Pérez, V., & Amann, B. L. (2017). EMDR beyond PTSD: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1668. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01668

van den Berg, D. P., & van der Gaag, M. (2012). Treating trauma in psychosis with EMDR: A pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 43(1), 664-671. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.011

Van Der Vleugel, B. M., Van Den Berg, D. P., & Staring, A. B. (2012). [Trauma, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder and the application of EMDR]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 33-8. doi:10.1708/1071.11737

Wadaa, N. N., Zaharim, N. M., & Alqashan, H. F. (2010). The use of EMDR in treatment of traumatized Iraqi children. Digest of Middle East Studies, 19(1), 26-36.

Wilensky, M. (2006). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limb pain. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5(1), 31-44.

Wood, E., Ricketts, T., & Parry, G. (2017). EMDR as a treatment for long-term depression: A feasibility study. Psychology and Psychotherapy. doi:10.1111/papt.12145

Online EMDR Databases

The Francine Shapiro Library is the primary online database for scholarly articles and other reference materials related to the Adaptive Information Processing model and EMDR. The Francine Shapiro Library is hosted by the EMDR International Association and is maintained by Barbara J. Hensley, Ed.D.

Recent Research Articles on EMDR therapy has appeared in each quarterly issue of the EMDRIA Newsletter since 2005 and is publicly available on the EMDRIA website. The listings, compiled by Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D., include peer reviewed research reports and case studies directly related to EMDR, including original studies, review articles and meta-analyses accepted for publication or that have appeared in the previous six months in scholarly journals.

The Trauma Information Pages includes a comprehensive listing of all published journal articles related to EMDR from 1989 through 2005 along with scholarly information on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for clinicians and researchers, general information and support resources for affected individuals and their families and a wealth of links to other resources.

EMDR Professional Associations

A comprehensive listing of EMDR professional associations in other countries is maintained on the EMDRIA web site. Some of these professional associations provide directory listings to assist in locating EMDR trained clinicians and approved consultants in their respective countries.

EMDR Europe provides links to EMDR associations in many European countries where you can find country directories of EMDR trained clinicians.

Getting Started with EMDR

Guidelines for clinicians in selecting clients for initial application of EMDR reprocessing during and immediately following basic training in EMDR by Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. Director of Training, Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute

Abstract
This article addresses questions raised by clinicians in training or recently trained in EMDR regarding case finding and selection criteria for their initial applications of EMDR. Guidelines are offered for number of sessions of practice during training, for identifying and deferring more complex cases until more experience is gained, and for recognizing clients where reprocessing of disturbing memories should be postponed in favor of client stabilization. Three classes of clients and targets, with descriptive case examples, are proposed for initial application of EMDR during the training process. Clinicians are encouraged to thoroughly read Shapiro’s (2001) required text and other recently published books and journal articles and to actively participate in consultation with an EMDRIA Approved Consultant.

2010 Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. updated 4/17/10 from privately distributed version 2/23/98
GettingStarted.pdf

The full text of the 14 page article "Getting Started with EMDR" by Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. is available here. Click the file "GettingStarted.PDF" above to view or right click to download.

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How to Find an EMDR Trained Clinician

The minimum standard for professional practice of EMDR therapy in the USA (and to become a full clinical member of the EMDR International Association) is completing an EMDRIA approved basic training in EMDR.

Some abbreviated workshops on EMDR therapy are offered by organizations not approved by EMDRIA. Some clinicians who offer EMDR therapy may have ceased their training after only attending part of an EMDRIA approved training program. Therefore you may want to ask if a prospective clinician has at least completed an EMDRIA approved training program. EMDR professional associations in most regions of the world have similar standards.

So, on the EMDRIA searchable directory, the first level of recognition is being a licensed mental health professionals who has completed an EMDRIA approved basic training in EMDR therapy. These clinicians are eligible for membership in EMDRIA and, as members, are listed in the online searchable directory.

The second level of professional recognition is Certification. EMDR therapy trained clinicians can earn the designation of EMDRIA Certification by demonstrating a commitment to continuing education in EMDR therapy and meeting standards of knowledge and skills through practice, study and consultation.

The third and highest level of professional recognition is to become an Approved Consultant.

You can locate EMDR trained clinicians in the USA (and in some other countries) at these different levels of recognition on the EMDRIA web site.

To select the level of professional recognition when searching, use the 2nd and 3rd to last options on the “Find A Therapist” page.