EMDR Research News September 2012
This month we feature “How EMDR works” one of eight video segments with questions from Stephen Dansiger, PsyD, Executive Director of the ONE80CENTER who interviewed me at their Summitridge treatment center in Los Angeles August 17, 2012.
With each reference below, you will find the citation, abstract and author contact information (when available). Prior quarterly summaries of journal articles can be found on the EMDRIA website and a comprehensive listing of all EMDR-related research is available at the Francine Shapiro Library. EMDRIA members can access recent Journal of EMDR Practice and Research articles in the member’s area on the EMDRIA website. JEMDR issues older than 12 months are available open access on IngentaConnect.
Video of the month
This month’s video from features Andrew M. Leeds, Ph.D. in an ONE80CENTER interview speaking on “How EMDR Works”. This is one of eight question and answer segments recorded August 17, 2012 at ONE80CENTER’s treatment center at Summitridge in Los Angeles.
Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2012). Specialty topics on using EMDR with children. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 145-153. doi:10.1891/1933-3184.108.40.206
Robbie Adler-Tapia, 1615 E. Warner Road, Suite 2, Tempe, AZ 85284. E-mail: Dradleremail@example.com
“Specialty Topics on Using EMDR With Children” is written for therapists who have learned the basic eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) protocol and are interested in expanding their skills in using EMDR in individual treatment with children. This article explores the advanced application of EMDR with other clinical, emotional, developmental, and behavioral issues, including children who have been diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or have experienced trauma, attachment, and dissociation. The text is organized into headings of specific childhood diagnoses, issues, or presenting problems, with recommendations for procedural considerations and adjustments to the EMDR protocol. Unless indicated otherwise, the EMDR protocol follows the 8 phases, as discussed in the book, EMDR and the Art of Psychotherapy With Children (Adler-Tapia & Settle, 2008) with additions or modifications, as indicated.
Bergmann, U. (2012). Consciousness examined: An introduction to the foundations of neurobiology for EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 87-91. doi:10.1891/1933-3220.127.116.11
Uri Bergmann, 366 Veterans Memorial Highway, Suite 1A, Commack, NY 11725. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The human mind is difficult to investigate, but the biological foundations of the mind, especially consciousness, are generally regarded as the most daunting. In this article, excerpted from the book Neurobiological Foundations for EMDR Practice (Bergmann, 2012), we introduce and outline aspects of consciousness, information processing, and their relationship to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). We examine consciousness with respect to three characteristics: unity of perception and function, subjectivity, and prediction. The relationship of these characteristics to EMDR is examined.
Dibajnia, P., Zahirodin, A. R., & Gheidar, Z. (2012). Eye-movement desensitization influence on post-traumatic stress disorder. Pajoohandeh Journal, 16(7), 322-326.
Ali Reza Zahirodin, Professor, Behavioual science Research center, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: email@example.com
Background: The 5% to 25% prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during life-time can cause irrefutable harms an individuals and society. This research carried out to examine; or not eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment can improve PTSD symptoms.
Materials and methods: 71 patients (56 females and 15 males) have been selected randomly. Demographic and kind of trauma-reminding information were collected by two questionnaires. Blood pressure, Heart beating and Breathing numbers before and after EMDR were measured. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and Q2 using SPSS software version 16.
Results: 59% of patients were under 20-30 years old. 79% were females. According to the results, EMDR resulted to significant reduction of trauma reminding. Blood pressure, heart beating and breathing increased by trauma reminding significantly.
Conclusion: EMDR techniques promote improvement of negative symptoms of PTSD.
Forgash, C., & Knipe, J. (2012). Integrating EMDR and ego state treatment for clients with trauma disorders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 120-128. doi:10.1891/1933-318.104.22.168
Carol Forgash, LCSW, BCD, 353 North Country Road, Smithtown, NY 11787. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This article is an excerpt from Healing the Heart of Trauma and Dissociation with EMDR and Ego State Therapy (edited by Carol Forgash and Margaret Copeley, 2007, pp. 1-59). The preparation phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is very important in the therapy of multiply traumatized clients with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms. EMDR clinicians who treat clients with complex trauma will benefit from learning specific readiness and stabilization interventions that are inherent to Phase 1 of a well-accepted phased trauma-treatment model. Extending the preparation phase of EMDR by including these interventions provides sequential steps for the development of symptom-management skills and increased stability. Additional focus is placed on helping clients work with their ego state system to develop boundaries, cooperative goals, and healthier attachment styles. Following an individually tailored preparation phase, the processing of long-held traumatic memory material becomes possible.
Gomez, A. M. (2012). Healing the caregiving system: Working with parents within a comprehensive EMDR treatment. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 136-144. doi:10.1891/1933-322.214.171.124
Ana M. Gomez, MC, LPC, 1110 E Missouri, Suite 640, Phoenix, AZ 84014. E-mail: AnaG@AnaGomezTherapy.com
This article is an excerpt from the book EMDR Therapy and Adjunct Approaches With Children: Complex Trauma, Attachment, and Dissociation. It presents an original model to work with caregivers of children with complex trauma. This model comprises 3 levels of parental involvement within a comprehensive eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment: psychoeducation, self-regulation, and memory reprocessing and integration (Gomez, 2009, 2012a, 2012b). Mentalization and reflective function (Fonagy & Target, 1997), mindsight (Siegel, 1999, 2010), mind-mindedness (Meins, Fernyhough, Fradley, & Tuckey, 2002), insightfulness (Koren-Karie, Oppenheim, Dolev, Sher, & Etziom-Carasso, 2002), and metacognitive monitoring (Flavell, 1979; Main, 1991) are all constructs linked to the parent's capacity to develop infant's attachment security. However, unresolved trauma and loss appears to impair these capacities in parents. Many children wounded by caregivers lacking such competences had to endure repetitive emotional, physical, and sexual overt and covert abuse; enmeshment and intrusiveness; or on the contrary, detachment and lack of connection. When the caregivers have been the wounding agents, their inclusion and active participation in the overall treatment of their children is fundamental.
Hensley, B. J. (2012). Adaptive information processing, targeting, the standard protocol, and strategies for successful outcomes in EMDR reprocessing. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 92-100. doi:10.1891/1933-3126.96.36.199
Barbara J. Hensley, EdD, 9900 Carver Road, Suite 101, Cincinnati, OH 45242-5523. E-mail: email@example.com
This article provides excerpts from each chapter of An EMDR Primer: From Practicum to Practice (Hensley, 2009) to assist novice eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) clinicians who are learning how to use this approach and to serve as a refresher for therapists who have not used EMDR consistently in their practices. Actual cases are presented that demonstrate various strategies that the therapist can use to help clients reach adaptive resolution of trauma. Tables and figures highlight important features to explain the obvious and subtle nuances of EMDR. Focal points are the following: (a) the adaptive information processing model; (b) the types of targets accessed during the EMDR process; (c) the 8 phases of EMDR; (d) the components of the standard EMDR protocol used during the assessment phase; (e) past, present, and future in terms of appropriate targeting and successful outcomes; and (f) strategies and techniques for dealing with challenging clients, high levels of abreaction, and blocked processing.
Khosropour, F., Ebrahiminejad, G. H., Salehi, M., & Farzad, V. (2012). Comparing the effectiveness of psychological debriefing, eye movement desensitization reprocessing, and imaginal exposure on treatment of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, 19(2), 149-159.
F. Khosropour, Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Background & Aims: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered as one of the most prevalent disorder during the life time and can negatively influence the individual, family and social relationships of patients, so, prevention and treatment of this disorder is highly important. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), psychological debriefing (PD), and imaginal exposure (IE) are some treatment methods, but there is controversy about long effects of these treatments, especially among chronic patients.
Method: In a semi experimental study, a total of 54 adult male patients, based on Davidson scale and psychiatric diagnostic, were randomly selected, and then were divided into 3 equal therapy groups. All participants were evaluated before, after and 3 months after the treatment. Data were analyzed through the repeated variance and Duncan post-hoc tests.
Results: Psychological debriefing and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing were better than imaginal exposure in relief of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder signs and remaining the effectiveness in three months follow-up.
Conclusion: It is concluded that all of the above methods are effective on chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and the efficacy of the therapeutic techniques would be still in force even after 3 months.
Considering the importance of psychological interventions, it is necessary that such methods be taught to psychologists so that they can use them after traumatic accidents.
Leeds, A. M. (2012). EMDR treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia: Two model treatment plans. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 110-119. doi:10.1891/1933-3188.8.131.52
Sonoma Psychotherapy Training Institute, Andrew M. Leeds, 1049 Fourth Street, Suite G, Santa Rosa, CA, 95404. E-mail: aleeds@theLeeds.net
This article, condensed from Chapter 14 of A Guide to the Standard EMDR Protocols for Clinicians, Supervisors, and Consultants (Leeds, 2009), examines applying eye movement desensitization and re- processing (EMDR) to treating individuals with panic disorder (PD) and PD with agoraphobia (PDA). The literature on effective treatments for PD and PDA is reviewed focusing on cognitive and behavioral therapies, pharmacotherapy, and EMDR. Case reports and controlled studies of EMDR treatment of PD and PDA are examined for lessons to guide EMDR clinicians. Two model EMDR treatment plans are presented: one for cases of simple PD without agoraphobia or other co-occurring disorders and the other for cases of PDA or PD with co-occurring anxiety or Axis II disorders. A more extensive literature discussion, detailed treatment guidelines, and client education resources can be found in the original chapter.
Luber, M. (2012). Protocol for excessive grief. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 129-135. doi:10.1891/1933-3184.108.40.206
Marilyn Luber, PhD, Medical Tower Building, 255 S. 17th Street, Suite 804, Philadelphia, PA 19103. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
“Protocol for Excessive Grief” is excerpted from Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Scripted Protocols: Basics and Special Situations illustrating a scripted protocol from one of Francine Shapiro's 6 basic protocols. “Scripting” informs and reminds EMDR practitioners of the component parts, sequence, and language used to create effective outcomes, and also generates a template for practitioners and researchers to use for reliability and/or a common denominator so that the form of working with EMDR is consistent. This protocol includes 5 steps: process actual events, including the loved one's suffering or death; process any intrusive images that are occurring; process the nightmare images; process any stimuli/triggers associated with the grief experience; and address issues of personal responsibility, mortality, or previous unresolved losses. The future template is included. This protocol addresses the many aspects of grief and mourning to assure the full processing of clients' concerns.
Royle, L., & Kerr, C. (2012). From the general to the specific – selecting the target memory. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(3), 101-109. doi:10.1891/1933-3220.127.116.11
Liz Royle, 346 Blackburn Road, Egerton, Bolton, UK, BL7 9TR. E-mail: email@example.com
This article is an excerpt from the book Integrating EMDR Into Your Practice (Royle & Kerr, 2010), which is a hands-on guide to facilitate the successful integration of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) training into therapists' practice while recognizing that trainees come from a range of theoretical backgrounds. This excerpt focuses on identifying the appropriate target memory and its related negative cognition (NC) in preparation for desensitization. Clients and therapists need to understand the rationale for selecting a particular target utilizing prioritization and clustering techniques. The importance of the belief system is discussed and methods of identifying the initial targets are offered, including the floatback technique. Many practitioners experience difficulty in getting the right NC, and methods for drawing this out are illustrated. Final preparations prior to desensitization are considered as well as the importance of addressing client anxieties and expectations. Throughout the excerpt, case vignettes are used to outline cautions and common pitfalls encountered by the novice EMDR therapist.